COMPSCI 92L Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Certificate Authority, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, Tim Wu

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11 May 2016
Spring 2016
Lecture 2: Web/Internet/Algorithms
CS depends a lot on scaling and timing
Content Distribution Networks (CDN) - allows replication of material synced throughout
websites across the world
displayed in URL of Facebook photo
Internet is different type of network than cell/landline network
Internet - network of autonomous systems (network of networks), packet-switched
different networks affect how network traffic gets between an area’s receptors
ex. Zimbabwe’s Netflix network is different from those of US’s since Zimbabwe
just got Netflix access
“bits v atoms” coined by Nicholas Negroponte
bits can be generated differently for free so that every person can watch an
episode at the same time (ex. Netflix episode)
atoms are physically tangible and can be copied (ex. copy of a Redbox DVD)
DVDs are designed to make it difficult to copy
more atoms in the world than iPv6 addresses (10^80 > 2^128)
HTML 5: standard for web development
information from server to client rendered in a browser
platform differences b/w phone, laptop OS
ex. websites that adjust formatting according to what “Markup” you’re on
(phone markup, laptop markup, etc)
some smart websites automatically take this into account
HTML’s webpage has another layer, JavaScript
interactive webpages, client, server
benefits of interacting client-side
drawbacks of not going to server
UI/UX interaction w/ app/pages
HTTP: Hypertext Transport Protocol
browser renders the program to make it displayable on devices
“view page source” (R click on a webpage) gives meta JavaScript codes
“inspect” gives:
elements: JS code
styles: colors
IPv4: 2^32, IPv6: 2^128
4 bit standard to help route packets through the internet
Internet Engineering Force
non-static webpages because traffic goes back and forth
servers: Apache, NGINX, IIS7 (hardware + software + abstraction)
find more resources at
find more resources at
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