NEUROSCI 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Gastric Bypass Surgery, Enteroendocrine Cell, Enteric Nervous System

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17 May 2016
Dr. Diego Bohroquez, Duke Dept. of Medicine
Researches the role of brain perception within gut processing
Nutritional psychology - the way in which our food choices influence our behavioral and
physiological responses
PYY hormone is a gut hormone that regulates energy homeostasis
eGFP is produced alongside PYY hormone, viewed by epithelial cell histology
Rewiring the intestines in a gastric bypass surgery can change a patient’s perception
towards food - can this surgery help treat eating disorders?
Gastrointestinal associated lymphoid tissue: intestine’s own immune system
Enteric nervous system: intestine’s nerves
3 collections of cells: plexus, ganglia from vagus nerve
Gut’s biosensor: enteroendocrine cell, sense tastants
The gut is widely considered as the first brain in many prehistoric and medieval
Sensory Receptor Groups
Olfactory, gustatory, visual systems have networks of labeled lines and receptors that
enable the sensory organs to transduce external stimuli
Identifying the Digestive System
However, the digestive system works differently: fewer interconnected organs
Nutrients get absorbed by gut’s sensory cells (ex. enteroendocrine cells)
Viewed by histology
Downside of histology: cutting the cell only to a few microns, so you’re only
seeing a segment of the entire cell
These cells aren’t in direct contact w/ blood vessels
Used transmission electrospectroscophy: uses electric charge to stimulate a tissue,
watches which particles deflect and create an image using these deflected particles
Neuropod - 3D printed tool
Automated tape collecting ultra microtome - allows us to preserve the split sections to
reconstruct a block
Applications: isolate specific protein within cell
Results: 67% of cells are directly connected by nerves that innervate the intestine
Cells have several genes expressed in presynaptic context: PYY, Synapsin 1,
Synapsin 2, GFP
Enteroendocrine cell has protein transmission b/w presynaptic and postsynaptic
active zones (different genes for pre/post regions)
Neurexins - essential genes for formation of a synapse
Postsynaptic zones allow for stimulus habituation (especially sound),
found in hair cells of the inner ear
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