NEUROSCI 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Neural Oscillation, Lobectomy, Hemispherectomy

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17 May 2016
Consciousness Discussion/Science Writing Techniques
Mistakes in science writing:
APA Citation: Clelland et al. (2009) or (Clelland et al., 2009)
Can’t use “proved”, “declared”
rather than “proved,” use “found evidence/correlations for/against,”
report result for each manipulation and task, be specific
Human neuro methods for measuring the brain (somatic intervention) are measured
based on criteria of spatial, temporal, invasiveness
brain imaging - less invasive
fMRI - functional magnetic resona
function/metabolic activity, bold signal w/ oxygen atoms
oxygenated blood has a different magnetic signature than
deoxygenated blood, fMRI is sensitive to this difference, allowing
researchers to track the relative amount of oxygenated blood over
time w/i a small brain region
changes ratio of de/oxygenated blood, examine molecular spin
indirect measure of brain activity - correlate of blood flow, which
is a correlate of neurodynamics, “good first step,” looking at inputs
to brain area (IPSP/EPSP) rather than actual brain activity
neurons require a constant supply of fresh oxygen to keep
processes going
+: noninvasive/safe, repeatable, allows data to be collected across
the entire brain simultaneously, good spatial resolution
-: indirect measure, relatively slow temporal resolution, pretty brain
maps can overstate weak results, lead to popular misinterpretation
MRI - structural anatomy
DTI - processing of MRI images that isolates water molecules
PET - positron emission tomography
+: can be used to measure neurotransmitter receptor density
(unlike MRI)
-: poor temporal resolution, health hazards b/c of radioactive
CT - computerized axial topography
+: good spatial resolution (tumor recognition, brain malformation,
concussion damage)
-: poor temporal resolution (only a structural snapshot measure,
can’t be used to track brain activity over time), large amounts of
ionizing radiation
electrical activity - more invasive
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