NEUROSCI 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Retina, Optogenetics

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17 May 2016
Multimodal Sensory Discussion
Multimodal Rubber Hand Experiment
multimodal - tactile and visual sensations integrated together
multimodal experiment where one person’s R hand gets painted while looking at a
rubber hand that simultaneously gets painted
after 2 minutes, the experimenter takes a hammer to the rubber hand
50% of people reacted aversely to the rubber hand because they believed their actual
hand was hit
altered the experiment by changing the skin color of the rubber hand (black skin colors
responded less to the white hand)
Visual Neurons
nothing intrinsic to make neuron visual
retina > bipolar cells > ganglion cells
transduction of light information occurs through release of NT, Glu
pros of electrophysiology
extremely accurate temporal and spatial resolution
temporal - difference in time b/w recordings (high temporal resolution
means small time frame b/w each recording, fMRI’s 1 ms, CT scan 1 s)
spatial - difference in distance b/w recordings (higher if recording covers a
larger distance)
optogenetics has high temporal resolution but low spatial resolution
direct measurement of cellular activity
allows direct stimulation and pharmacological manipulations
cons of electrophysiology
time-consuming, 70 hrs to build an electrode
often too zoomed in to answer various research questions
needs an electrode in a living brain, which is an invasive procedure
2 subdivisions of electrophysiology techniques
extracellular (single unit recording, used in cat E-phys paper)
○ multiunit
● intracellular
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