NEUROSCI 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Foxp2, Hindbrain, Diencephalon

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17 May 2016
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Ch. 15: Language and Brain Development
1. Describe 2 ways that brain language relations are different in infants than in adults:
a. developing lateralization as we reach 14 mos; infants have less lateralized left
and right brains since the neurons have had less time to develop through
experience than adults’
b. bilingual adults have activation in different areas of the L hemisphere when they
develop speaking skills for the second language later in life, while babies can
tune more easily into sounds associated with different languages than adults can
2. Modern cog-neuro neuroscience methods, like fMRI, have revealed language loss that is
not easily explained by the classic Wernicke-Geshwind model. What has been found?
a. category-specific deficits: some people cannot recall names of tools, animals, etc
b. W-G model doesn’t account for all the structures responsible for producing
language
3. If I had a stroke that damaged the articulate fasiculus, what language deficit would I
have and why?
a. Broca’s aphasia, since the articulate fasiculus
*can insert FOXP2 gene into mice to see if they perform better in language comprehension
tasks (ex. maze running), and it works!
Development of Prenatal Brain
1. starts as flat tissue of ectoderm
2. center of tissue folds in and creates a valley
3. walls of valley fold over, join at top
4. central “underground river” develops underneath
5. neural tube forms
Brain Development
1. The corpus callosum is medial to the cerebral hemisphere. T
2. The CNS/bone both develop from endoderm (middle layer). F
a. CNS/skin develop from ectoderm (top layer)
3. During development stem cells all over the brain divide and migrate to their appropriate
location before differentiating. T, cell migration occurs before cell differentiation
4. The surface of the cerebral hemispheres are convoluted (hills and valleys). T
5. Why then can you see convolutions in a midsagittal section?
a. When you’re trying to minimize surface area within the skull during birth, the
brain folds inward within itself. So when you slice midway through the two
hemispheres down the corpus collosum, the sulci/gyri grooves are still present to
conserve space.
6. What is the name of the fluid filled canal that runs through the brain and spinal cord?
How did it develop? Why is it there? central canal (runs from 3rd/4th ventricles
downward), developed during fetal development when neural grooves fold over into a
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canal (material inside the canal = rivers/valleys), serves to transport CSF as both a
shock barrier and transport of blood/filtering toxins
7. What are the 3 main divisions of the brain? Which two further divide? forebrain,
midbrain, hindbrain; forebrain (telencephalon, diencephalon), hindbrain (myencephalon -
medulla, metencephalon - pons, cerebellum)
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