NEUROSCI 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Central Nervous System, Postcentral Gyrus, Parietal Lobe

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17 May 2016
Department
Professor
1-26-16
Divisions of the Brain
http://www.columbia.edu/cu/psychology/courses/1010/mangels/neuro/anatomy/structure.html
Central Nervous System (CNS)
1. Forebrain
a. Telencephalon
a.i. cerebral cortex/neocortex
a.i.1. grey matter outside, white matter inside, 4-6mm deep
a.i.2. smooth in small mammals, deep grooves (sulci), wrinkles
(gyri) in primates and many mammals
a.i.3. humans: 76% of brain’s volume, 20% of neurons
a.i.4. 6 layers segregated by cell type, neuronal input
a.i.5. 4 major lobes: frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal
a.i.5.a. occipital lobe: processes vision
a.i.5.b. temporal lobe: processes sounds, speech
(Wernicke’s area)
a.i.5.c. frontal lobe: motor, contains primary motor cortex
(homunculus), direct control of body’s muscles mapped
onto the cortex
a.i.5.d. parietal lobe: cont primary somatosensory cortex:
your feeling of touch from various body areas are mapped
onto this region
ex. facial processing is done by the fusiform face region, located
in the right temporal lobe (prosopagnosia - inability to recognize
faces), those with autism have weaker developed fusiform areas
ex. prefrontal cortex controls executive function: makes
judgements, assesses social situations, monitoring behavior
a.ii. hippocampus
a.ii.1. underneath telencephalon
a.ii.2. “ram horn shaped” because folded over w/i gyrus of brain
a.ii.3. f(x): lays down declarative memory (anecdotal/somatic
memories, relational/spatial information processing
a.ii.4. Alzheimer’s is degenerative, cells in hippocampus start
dying
a.iii. basal ganglia
a.iii.1. striatum = caudate nucleus + putamen + globus pallidus
a.iii.1.a. movement selection/planning movements in habit
(ex. serving a tennis ball)
a.iii.2. nucleus accumbens
a.iii.3. ventral pallidum
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