PHILO-120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: False Statement
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Intro to Philosophy
● Justice in the City
○ “I think our city, if indeed has been correctly founded, is completely good …
clearly, then, it is wise, courageous, moderate, and just” (427e3-4)
■ Wisdom: good judgement with respect to political matters, found in
■ Courage: power to preserve beliefs about what is to be feared
■ Moderation (temperance): control of the city by the rulers
■ Justice: “doing one’s work and not meddling with what isn’t one’s own”
○ Question: Does the soul have the three parts in it or not?
● Distinction between Parts
○ Parts of the soul- appetites, reason, and spirit - distinguished by appeal to proper
objects & functions
■ Appetites: thirst, hunger, deerasire for sex
■ Reason: learning, knowledge
■ Spirit: anger, courage
○ There are three parts of the soul because there are three parts of the city.
○ Reasons for division of the parts of the soul is: the same thing cannot undergo
opposites at the same time in the same respect.
● Division of the Soul
○ “Do we learn with one part, get angry with another, and with some third part
desire the pleasures of food, drink, sex, and others that are closely akin to them?
Or when we set out after something, do we act with the whole of our soul, in each
○ Answer based on principle: “it is obvious that the same thing will not be willing
to do or undergo opposites in the same part of itself, in relation to the same thing,
at the same time So if we ever find this happening in the soul, we’ll know that we
aren’t dealing with one thing but many”
● Roles of Women
○ Women avoided tasks reserved for men.
○ Relations with women kept in the background.
○ Women are separate from politics and public affairs and the call to action.
● Family and Society (Despite women are weaker than man, …)
1. Men and women have same natures
2. Men and women have same natures must have same education
3. Men and women with the same natures must do the same work
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