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Lecture 8

PHILO-120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Inculturation, Simile

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Intro to Philosophy
Fall 2018
Philosopher thought of useless and evil.
Socrates uses analogy: state of ship
Members of the ship struggle with one another to become captain (possess
wisdom of navigation)
Members of ship misunderstand requirement of captain. Eventually, they think
captain is useless because they think they can sail a boat easily.
Public Opinion
Socrates explains why there are no philosopher kings.
Societies are not conducive to the development of philosopher. Their public
opinion corrupts majority of people.
Form of the Good (acts as the sun; gives life)
Simile of the line.
Physical realm: images of object
Intelligible realm: definition of the forms (beauty, courage, justice)
Existence of Abstract Concepts
Socrates believes Abstract Concepts don’t exist in physical realm
Don’t use number 2 next to tree.
Allegory of the Cave
Audience imagine a group of prisoners chained since birth to the bottom of a cave
The prisoners can only see the wall in front of them
Behind them: puppeteers move statues in front of a fire (cast shadow in front of
Breaking of the Chains
If a prisoner breaks chains and turns around. His eyes are unaccustomed to the
light of the fire. After a period of time, eyes will adjust to the light.
Existence of shadows depends on the existence of the statue.
Ascent to the Upper World
Eyes unaccustomed to sun, will unable to see objects.
Eyes will adjust, and see shadows, water.
Concludes sun is the source of life.
To acquire true wisdom, need to know math.
The true use of math is simply to draw the soul toward being. We must
endeavor to persuade those who are to be the principal men of our state to
learn arithmetic because this will be the easiest way for her to pass from
becoming to truth and being.
Writing a Phil 1 Plato Paper:
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