PHILO-120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Inculturation, Simile
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Intro to Philosophy
● Philosopher thought of useless and evil.
○ Socrates uses analogy: state of ship
○ Members of the ship struggle with one another to become captain (possess
wisdom of navigation)
○ Members of ship misunderstand requirement of captain. Eventually, they think
captain is useless because they think they can sail a boat easily.
● Public Opinion
○ Socrates explains why there are no philosopher kings.
○ Societies are not conducive to the development of philosopher. Their public
opinion corrupts majority of people.
● Form of the Good (acts as the sun; gives life)
○ Simile of the line.
○ Physical realm: images of object
○ Intelligible realm: definition of the forms (beauty, courage, justice)
● Existence of Abstract Concepts
○ Socrates believes Abstract Concepts don’t exist in physical realm
■ Don’t use number 2 next to tree.
● Allegory of the Cave
○ Audience imagine a group of prisoners chained since birth to the bottom of a cave
○ The prisoners can only see the wall in front of them
○ Behind them: puppeteers move statues in front of a fire (cast shadow in front of
● Breaking of the Chains
○ If a prisoner breaks chains and turns around. His eyes are unaccustomed to the
light of the fire. After a period of time, eyes will adjust to the light.
○ Existence of shadows depends on the existence of the statue.
● Ascent to the Upper World
○ Eyes unaccustomed to sun, will unable to see objects.
○ Eyes will adjust, and see shadows, water.
○ Concludes sun is the source of life.
○ To acquire true wisdom, need to know math.
■ The true use of math is simply to draw the soul toward being. We must
endeavor to persuade those who are to be the principal men of our state to
learn arithmetic because this will be the easiest way for her to pass from
becoming to truth and being.
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