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Lecture 7

BIOL 1150 Lecture 7: Bio Notes 9:13:16

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BIOL 1150
Eric Anderson

Bio Notes 9/13/16 Learning Objectives - Describe the structure of a polymer including its formation through dehydration synthesis and its breakdown through hydrolysis - Explain and Compare/Contrast the structure and biological purpose of a carbohydrate, lipid, protein, and nucleic acid molecules - Explain the purpose of enzymes in organisms and how they function - Describe ATP as the energy currency of the cell Biological Organization: From Smaller to Larger - sub-atomic particles > atoms > molecules > biological macromolecules - four large polymer molecule groups that are only found in organisms and make up their structure and drive their function: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids - these are large polymer molecules made up of smaller molecular sub-units (monomers) Condensation reaction v.s. Hydrolysis reaction - condensation - removal of water to form bonds between subunits to build a more complex structure - for BUILDING - hydrolysis - addition of water to break bonds, digesting polymers into smaller subunits - for BREAKDOWN What is a Polymer? - amino acids, nucleotides, and sugars are called monomers - monomer + monomer = polymer - process of polymerization What is nucleic acid? - the basic unit for storage of genetic information 1) phosphate group - energy 2) sugar - structure 3) nitrogenous base - function Folding and Function - folding is often spontaneous - unfolded = non-functional - folding is crucial for proper protein function - denatured - process of protein unfolding - renatured - process of refolding a denatured protein - often this is not successful - molecular chaperones - produced in response to high temperature, “heat shock” proteins Sugars: The structure of saccharides - monosaccharide monomers are simple sugars - polysaccharide, or complex carbohydrates, are polymers of monosacch
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