BIOL 2130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Bile Acid, Glycerol, Cholesterol

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Published on 27 Mar 2017
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Dehydration synthesis- monomers are joined to form polymers through the removal of
water molecules
o A hydrogen ion is removed from one monomer while a hydroxyl group is
removed from the monomer it is to be joined with
o Monomers unite, and water is released
Hydrolysis- polymers are broken down into monomers through the addiction of water
molecules
o As a water molecule is added to each bond, the bond is broken, and the
monomers are released
Important Organic Compounds- Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
o Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
o Include sugars and starches
o Classified according to size
Monosaccharides- simple sugars
Disaccharides- two simple sugars joined by dehydration synthesis
Polysaccharides- long branching chains of linked simple sugars
Monosaccharides- simple sugars
o Single chain or single-ring structures
o Contain 3 to 7 carbon atoms
o Examples: glucose (blood sugar), fructose, galactose, ribose, deoxyribose
Disaccharides- two simple sugars joined by dehydration synthesis
o Examples include sucrose, lactose, and maltose
Polysaccharides: long, branching chains of linked simple sugars
o Large, insoluble molecules
o Function as storage products
o Examples include starch and glycogen
Important Organic Compounds- Lipids
Lipids
o Most abundant are the triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids
o Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Carbon and hydrogen outnumber oxygen
o Insoluble in water, but soluble in other lipids
Lipids- Neutral Fats (Triglycerides)
Common lipids in the human body
o Neutral fats (triglycerides)
Found in fat deposits
Source of stored energy
Composed of three fatty acids and one glycerol molecule
Saturated fatty acids
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