BIOL 2130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Pentose, Chemical Energy, Cytosine

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27 Mar 2017
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o Built from amino acids
Amino acid structure
o Contain an amine group (NH2)
o Contain an acid group (COOH)
o Vary only by R groups
Proteins
Protein structure
Polypeptides contain fewer than 50 amino acids
Large proteins may have 50 to thousands of amino acids
Sequence of amino acids produces a variety of proteins
Structural levels of proteins
Primary structure
Secondary structure
Alpha helix
Beta-pleated sheet
Tertiary structure
Quaternary structure
Proteins- Types
Fibrous (structural) proteins
o Appear in body structures
o Exhibit secondary, tertiary, or even quaternary structure
o Bind structures together and exist in body tissues
o Stable proteins
o Examples include collagen and keratin
Globular (functional) proteins
o Function as antibodies, hormones, or enzymes
o Exhibit at least tertiary structure
o Can be denatured and no longer perform physiological roles
o Actie sites fit ad iteract cheically ith other olecules
Enzymes
Act as biological catalysts
Increase the rate of chemical reactions
Bind to substrates at an active site to catalyze reactions
Recognize enzymes by their ase suffix
Hydrolase
Oxidase
Important Organic Compounds- Nucleic Acids
Nucleic acids
Make up genes
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