BIOL 2130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Pentose, Chemical Energy, Cytosine

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27 Mar 2017
o Built from amino acids
Amino acid structure
o Contain an amine group (NH2)
o Contain an acid group (COOH)
o Vary only by R groups
Protein structure
Polypeptides contain fewer than 50 amino acids
Large proteins may have 50 to thousands of amino acids
Sequence of amino acids produces a variety of proteins
Structural levels of proteins
Primary structure
Secondary structure
Alpha helix
Beta-pleated sheet
Tertiary structure
Quaternary structure
Proteins- Types
Fibrous (structural) proteins
o Appear in body structures
o Exhibit secondary, tertiary, or even quaternary structure
o Bind structures together and exist in body tissues
o Stable proteins
o Examples include collagen and keratin
Globular (functional) proteins
o Function as antibodies, hormones, or enzymes
o Exhibit at least tertiary structure
o Can be denatured and no longer perform physiological roles
o Actie sites fit ad iteract cheically ith other olecules
Act as biological catalysts
Increase the rate of chemical reactions
Bind to substrates at an active site to catalyze reactions
Recognize enzymes by their ase suffix
Important Organic Compounds- Nucleic Acids
Nucleic acids
Make up genes
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