BIOL 2130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Spindle Apparatus, Macrophage, Skeletal Muscle

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27 Mar 2017
Cytoplasmic Organelles
o Specialized cellular compartments
o Many are membrane-bound
o Copartetalizatio is ritial for orgaelle’s aility to perfor speialized
o Powerhouses of the ell
o Change shape continuously
o Mitochondrial wall consists of a double membrane with cristae on the inner
o Carry out reactions where oxygen is used to break down food
o Provides ATP for cellular energy
o Biolbed dark body
o Made of protein and ribosomal RNA
o Sites of protein synthesis
o Found at two locations:
Free in the cytoplasm
As part of the rough endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
o Fluid-filled cisterns (tubules or canals) for carrying substances within the cell
o Two types:
Rough ER
Smooth ER
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
o Studded with ribosomes
o Synthesizes proteins
o Transport vesicles move proteins within the cell
o Abundant in cells that make and export proteins
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
o Functions in lipid metabolism
o Detoxification of drugs and pesticides
Golgi apparatus
o Appears as a stack of flattened membranes associated with tiny vesicles
o Modifies and packages proteins arriving from the rough ER via transport vesicles
o Produces different types of packages
Secretory vesicles (pathway 1)
In-house proteins and lipids (pathway 2)
Lysosomes (pathway 3)
o Meraous ags pakaged y the Golgi apparatus
o Contain enzymes produced by ribosomes
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