BIOL 2130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Actomyosin Ring, Prophase, Guanine

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28 Mar 2017
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Cell Life Cycle
Cell life cycle is a series of changes the cell experiences from the time it is formed
until it divides
Cycle has two major periods
1. Interphase
oCell grows
oCell carriers on metabolic processes
oLonger phase of the cell cycle
2. Cell Division
oCell replicates itself
oFunction is to produce more cells for growth and repair processes
Getting Ready for Cell Division: DNA Replication
Genetic material is duplicated and readies a cell for division into two cells
Occurs toward the end of interphase
DNA uncoils into two nucleotide chains, and each side serves as a template
Nucleotides are complementary
oAdenine (A) always bonds with thymine (T)
oGuanine (G) always bonds with cytosine (C)
For example, TACTGC bonds with new nucleotides in the order ATGACG
Events of Cell Division
Mitosis- division of the nucleus
oResults in the formation of two daughter nuclei
Cytokinesis- division of the cytoplasm
oBegins when mitosis is near completion
oResults in the formation of two daughter cells
Stages of Mitosis
Prophase
oFirst part of cell division
oChromatin coils into chromosomes
Chromosomes are held together by a centromere
A chromosome has two strands
Each strand is called a chromatid
oCentrioles migrate to the poles to direct assembly of mitotic spindle fibers
Mitotic spindles are made of microtubules
Spindle provides scaffolding for the attachment and movement of the
chromosomes during the later mitotic stages
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