BIOL 2130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Nephron, Respiratory Tract, Muscle Tissue

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28 Mar 2017
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Types of RNA
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
oTransfers appropriate amino acids to the ribosome for building the protein
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
oHelps form the ribosomes where proteins are built
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
oCarries the instructions for building a protein from the nucleus to the
ribosome
Protein synthesis involves two major phases:
oTranscription
oTranslation
Protein Synthesis
Transcription
oTransfer of information from DNA’s base sequence to the complementary
base sequence of mRNA
oOnly DNA and mRNA are involved
oTriplets are the three-base sequence specifying a particular amino acid on
the DNA gene
oCodons are the corresponding three-base sequences on mRNA
Example of transcription:
oDNA triplets AAT-CGT-TCG
omRNA codons UUA-GCA-AGC
Translation
oBase sequence of nucleic acid is translated to an amino acid sequence
oAmino acids are the building blocks of proteins
omRNA leaves nucleus and attaches to ribosome, and translation begins
oIncoming tRNA recognizes a complementary mRNA codon calling for its
amino acid by binding via its anticodon to the codon
oAs the ribosome moves along the mRNA, a new amino acid is added to the
growing protein chain
oReleased tRNA reenters the cytoplasmic pool, ready to be recharged with a
new amino acid.
Body Tissues
Tissues
oGroups of cells with similar structure and function
oFour primary types:
Epithelial tissue (epithelium)
Connective tissue
Muscle tissue
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