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Lecture 4

GEOG 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Population Pyramid, French Revolution, Demographic Transition

Course Code
GEOG 1000
Beth Bee

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Population: distribution and dynamics
Why we care
o Overpopulation- 7+ billion
o North Africa, Cairo, Egypt- political protests, democracies, overthrow dictatorial government
o More recent current events of refugees- 4 million people from Syria has applied for status
since 2011
Demography- study of characteristics of human population
Population geography- studies demography and spatial distribution of earth's population and
consequences on multiple scales
o Census- how many people, every 10 years
Distribution and density
o Density- number of people per unit of area
o Affected by:
Topography (low lying temperate climates with fertile soil)
History (10% of available land given to us) (63% of land mass in world is located north
of equator- 88% of world's population lives north of equator)
South and Southeast Asia is most densest area of the world
o Physiological density- uer of people per uit of roplad, does’t take ito
consideration distribution/type of food grown on land
Carrying capacity - max number of people an area can support, given its physical characteristics,
social characteristics, technological economy
o Crude birth rates- number of live births in a single year for every 1000 people in a
o Crude death rates- high crude birth rate= high crude death rate, vice versa
o Total fertility rates (TFR)- number of children a women will have over a lifetime
Families who do not expect their children to live into adulthood, have more children
Replacement rate= 2
o Infant mortality rates- ratio of infants per 1000 that do not survive before first birthday
World average= 43 deaths per 1000
o Life expectancy- average number of years an infant is supposed to live, varies by class race,
ethnicity, sex, healthcare, occupation
o Rate of natural increase- population growth, or not
# of crude deaths- # of crude births
Rev. Thomas Malthus
o Late 18th century wrote essay on principle of populations for future of society
o Food increases arithmetically
o Population increases geometrically
o Population outgrows food supply
o Favored government intervention (i.e.. # of children family can have)
War, famine, disease (all restores population/rebalance)
o Declining TFR- total fertility rate
Demographic transition model
Phase 1- pre-transition, high crude birth rate, high death rates, high tfr, stable
find more resources at
find more resources at
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