HLTH 2000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Transtheoretical Model, Health Belief Model, Social Learning Theory

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29 Dec 2017
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Public Health theories and types of learning
Principles of Learning : Learn by doing, Must be motivated and ready to learn;
Responses must be immediately reinforced; Responses vary according to the
environment; Learning occurs when responses are presented in the way that they are
going to be used; Learner learns only what they perceive as relevant; Change tends to
be resisted; Facilitate the process of learning
Theories are interrelated concepts that provide a systematic view; Explains
relationships; Can be used as a basis for research and interventions; predict outcomes
and behaviors; understand motivation
Concepts: primary element of theory
Construct: a developed concept
Model: a composite, mixture of ideas or concepts taken from any number of theories an
used together
Socio-ecological approach: multilevel, interactive approach that examines how physical,
social, political, economic, cultural dimension influence behaviors and conditions
Theories helps Health Educators plan, implement and evaluate programs, indicating the
various reasons why people are not behaving in healthy ways; Identifies information
needed before developing an intervention; Provides a conceptual framework for
developing an intervention; Gives insight into how best to deliver the intervention;
Identifies measurements needed to evaluate impact
Intrapersonal level : knowledge, attitudes, beliefs
Interpersonal level : group and peer support
The frequency of a behavior is determined by its consequences or reinforcements
Community level: Institutional factors - rules, regulations
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Community factors: social norms
Public policy: local , state, and federal
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs : (level 1) Physiological Needs, (level 2) Safety and Security,
(level 3) Relationships, Love and Affection, (level 4) Self Esteem, (level 5) Self
Actualization
Behavior: modified by external forces
Driving forces > resisting forces: person acts and moves towards goal
Lewin's Field Theory indicates that behavior results from 2 sets of forces: Change or
driving forces; Resisting or restraining forces
Theory can be used in problem solving, goal setting and new behavior processes
Driving forces = resisting forces : person is immobilized; No action
Resisting forces > driving forces : behavior is blocked: No action
Transtheoretical Model: Behavior occurs in four stages such as Pre-contemplation,
Contemplation, Action, Maintenance
Guiding Principles: Program has to take long range view; Program must respect
individual rights and needs; Program must be diverse and provide a variety of options;
Must emphasize follow-up and relapse prevention
Health Belief Model is based on four Postulates: Health behavior is related to the
general belief that one is susceptible to health problems; Health problems have
undesirable consequences; Health problems can be prevented; Barriers or costs have to
be overcome if health problems are to be solved.
Transtheoretical model of change (TMC) : The five stages of change model, developed
by Dr. Prochaska, provide coaches with an understanding of how and when behaviors
can be altered and why clients may struggle, fail, or quit. (precontemplation,
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