HLTH 2000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Quackery, Louis Pasteur, Smallpox

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29 Dec 2017
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Early Periods of Addressing Public Health and its transformation
Pre-Modern Era : Early Humans; Learning occurred by observation, as well as by trial
and error; Development of rules and taboos; Believed in influence of evil spirits and
gods
Age of Enlightenment : 1700s were a period of revolution, industrialization and growth
of cities, Cities overcrowded, water supplies inadequate/unsanitary, problems with
trash, workplaces unsafe; Health Education/Promotion still not emerged as a profession;
Average age at death: 28 years
Miasmas : disease formed in filth and caused by noxious vapors
The Nineteenth Century: 1800s : Overcrowding in cities, caused many public health
problems - small pox, cholera, typhoid and tuberculosis reached high endemic levels;
became known as the bacteriological period of public health
Lemuel Shattuck's Health Report (1850) led to the Establishment of Boards of health;
The collection of vital statistics; The implementation of sanitary measures; Research on
disease; Health education; Controlling exposure to alcohol, smoke, adulterated foods
and quack medicine.
Louis Pasteur, France : 1862: Proposed Germ theory
Robert Koch, Germany : 1870
Developed criteria necessary to establish particular microbe causes to particular
diseases; Once it was discovered what caused disease, they could begin working on how
to prevent it.
In the 1900s, the life expectancy was less than 50 years; Leading causes of death were
communicable diseases; Vitamin deficiencies and poor dental health common in slums
Reform Phase of Public Health (1900-1960): A time of financial expenditures for
facilities, manpower and research
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