PHIL 1175 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Institute For Operations Research And The Management Sciences, Deductive Reasoning, Nominalism

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7 Feb 2017
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Aristotle
o It is the natural drive of every human being to become Eudaimon - developed
morally and intellectually
Is it true that happiness is the same for everyone?
o Substance
o Human intellect - ability to speculate and contemplate about the world
(theoretical judgments)
o Believes that the universe has not always existed
o Idea of Causation
The vast complex of array of existence is an intricate web of causes and
effects (if you can trace the strand - then you can either find the first
cause or not)
The form is in the matter of the body; the form informs the body (makes
it appear and function as it does)
o When you die, your soul dies too (it all die)
Plato
o Alegory of the cave - the lowest capability of humans to understand the
universe is the physical world
Man is facing one way with people behind him showing puppets
(because he is only faced one way, this is what he believes the world to
be, just the puppets and not what it actually is); however, if you take him
out of the cave and into the sunlight, he is able to see what reality truly
is like
o The highest form of understanding is to contemplate the good (eidos)
o Never able to explain how the form is able to interact with the body (just says
it participates in the matter)
o Believes that the universe has always existed
o Realism
Realis ot….
Aquinas - we are created in the image and likeness of God (Christian realists)
o Because God alone is of value and the moral dignity inherent in the human
being comes from the fact of being created in the image and likeness of God
Ockham's reason: The explanation that causes us to believe in the least is correct
o The closer you get to ultimate truth, the more difficult it is to perceive - truth
reaches out to you (reason can't get there)
When you get to the realm of ultimate truth then you get to the realm of
infinitude (because reason is the highest gift of finitude)
o In response to Aquinas - we call the things we call them because we just do
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