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Lecture 14

PSY 111 Lecture 14: PSY 111 Notes- Social Psychology

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PSY 111
India R Johnson

PSY 111 Notes-Social Psychology Social Psychology Definition: the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another Three Key Ideas in Each Definition o Scientific Method Psychology is a science; therefore, many concepts within social psychology can be tested using the scientific method o Focus on the Individual As opposed to the group (that is sociology) o Interaction How do people act in groups/why do people act that way What happens around others The Scientific Study of Everyday Life (What Social Psychology Covers) o Emotions o Groupthink o Stereotyping and Prejudice o Obedience and Conformity o Relationships o Aggression o Prosocial Behavior Social Thinking o How do we explain others behavior? o Attribution Attribution Theory: the theory that we explain someones behavior by crediting either their situation of the persons disposition A hypothesis about the cause of another persons behaviors and actions Two kinds of Attribution: Dispositional Attributions (Default) o Internal reasons o Individual o Ex: She was late for work because shes careless Situational Attributions o External reasons o Situation o Ex: She was late to work because her car wouldnt start and her alarm didnt go off on time Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE) Fundamental Attribution Theory: the tendency for observers, when analyzing anothers behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition Nave Scientists o Underestimate situational influences o Overestimate dispositional influences FAE in the Real World o We often associate actors with the role they play Luke from Modern Familypeople think he isnt smart in real life o Homelessness We attribute it to laziness less likely to help raise money for the cause o Attitudes Definition: feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events An evaluation We can have an attitude towards anything and everything They can be bi-valenced Attitude change= persuasion Why do people study attitudes? Attitudes predict behavior When do attitudes predict behavior? o How much people are thinking is KEY!! Central Route Persuasion Peripheral Route Persuasion o Central Route Persuasion: Definition: occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts Thoughtful route Everything is an argument Strong arguments will lead to attitude change MOTIVATION o Peripheral Route Persuasion: Definition: occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as attractiveness Non-thoughtful Route Heuristics are Key!! (all of the factors that could influence your opinions) Expense Celebrity Endorsements Packaging Sex and Beauty Heuristics will lead to an attitude change ABILITY o Central vs. Peripheral: Why does it matter? Attitude change achieved via central route processing tends to be long-lasting o Cognitive Dissonance Theory Definition: the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent Why does behavior influence attitudes? Self-Persuasion: changing behavior to justify actions Cognitive Dissonance: internal tension that arises when one is aware of two inconsistent cognitions (I smoke, smoking is bad for you) Attitudes dont match behavior Tension (negative arousal) motivates changing one cognition Often the attitude is changed
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