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Lecture 1

ANT 333 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Multi-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Zip Code, Evolutionary Medicine

3 Pages
48 Views
Spring 2018

Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT 333
Professor
Konner Melvin
Lecture
1

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TB/Polio
Tuesday, February 6, 2018
2:34 PM
Modern history of tb
Death rates and interventions
Why did death rates decrease?
o Increase in living conditions
o Better medication/sanitation
o Garbage collection, sewage
o Cut the rate of death by 90% for TB
Darwinian medicine
o Bacteria are "learning" to fight off the aging antibiotics
Jk theyre evolving they cant learn silly scientists
Your longevity is more affected by your zip code than your genetic code
Public health campaigns for TB
They have skin test: standard tb test for generations
The largeness of the skin thing tells you how possible it is to get tb
Xpert mtb/rif can test for myobacterium tb from sputum
o Can also test for immunity from the antibiotic used
Urine test, cheaper and faster
Dna amplification requires sputum sample, which identifies rifampicin resistance
Primary lesion of tb is usually in lung
Affects many parts of the body (spreads)
Isnt much change after 2 months of tb treatment
Behavior and prevention
Its airborne so it can live or a while in the air
Can have latent infection and be infectious
There are 7 different strains of tb that are being spread rn
Sex gender etc
1/3rd of the world is infected with at least latent tb and one in 10 of them will get sick
4 in 10 cases are not correctly diagnosed
DOTS: directly observed treatment, short course: 5 elements
o Political commitment
o Microscopy devices
o Drug supplies
o Surveillance and monitoring systems
o Highly effective regimes w direct observation of treatment
o Cures up to 95% even in the poorest countries
o $11 per patient
o Prevents MDR tb using the full course of treatment
Polio
Virus affects
Eradicated from the western world, tbh most countries in the world
Nuts and bolts
o Poliomyelitis
o Majority have a passing non-specific illness (flu like)
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Description
TBPolio Tuesday, February 6, 2018 2:34 PM Modern history of tb Death rates and interventions Why did death rates decrease? o Increase in living conditions o Better medicationsanitation o Garbage collection, sewage o Cut the rate of death by 90 for TB Darwinian medicine o Bacteria are learning to fight off the aging antibiotics Jk theyre evolving they cant learn silly scientists Your longevity is more affected by your zip code than your genetic code Public health campaigns for TB They have skin test: standard tb test for generations The largeness of the skin thing tells you how possible it is to get tb Xpert mtbrif can test for myobacterium tb from sputum o Can also test for immunity from the antibiotic used Urine test, cheaper and faster Dna amplification requires sputum sample, which identifies rifampicin resistance Primary lesion of tb is usually in lung Affects many parts of the body (spreads) Isnt much change after 2 months of tb treatment Behavior and prevention Its airborne so it can live or a while in the air Can have latent infection and be infectious There are 7 different strains of tb that are being spread rn Sex gender etc 13rd of the world is infected with at least latent tb and one in 10 of them will get sick 4 in 10 cases are not correctly diagnosed DOTS: directly observed treatment, short course: 5 elements o Political commitment o Microscopy devices o Drug supplies o Surveillance and monitoring systems o Highly effective regimes w direct observation of treatment o Cures up to 95 even in the poorest countries o 11 per patient o Prevents MDR tb using the full course of treatment Polio Virus affects Eradicated from the western world, tbh most countries in the world Nuts and bolts o Poliomyelitis o Majority have a passing nonspecific illness (flu like)
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