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Lecture 2

ANT 333 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, Atul Gawande, Sooty Mangabey

Course Code
ANT 333
Konner Melvin

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Thursday, February 8, 2018
2:29 PM
Atul Gawande
Wrote an article about polio in india
Budget for healthcare in india was $4 a person 2003
Easy to diagnose, causes time, visible illness, needs only a one time vaccine
Polio is hard to diagnose, infectious weeks after symptoms pass, multiple vaccinations
Polio has more external reservoirs outside the body
Nigeria and pakistan, ppl are trying harder to vaccinate
Every 14 minutes, someone in us is infected with HIV
How can you get it?
o Unprotected sex
o Pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding
o Injecting drugs
o Workign in healthcare
o Blood transfusions/organ/tissue transplants
Receiving anal intercourse is the most risky type of sex
HIV: human immunodeficiency virus
AIDS" acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
o Transmitted through blood, semen, vaginal secretions, breast milk
o Cd4: white blood cells that fight infection. Numbers drop when infected w hiv
HIV 1 and HIV 2
o HIV 2 is more concentrated in africa
o Genomes consist of 2 rna strands
Rna strands are reverse transcribed into dna
o Rely on 3 enzymes
Reverse transcriptase
o Significant in mamalian evolution
8% of human genome is comprised of integrated retroviral dna
Where did it come from?
o Simian immunodeficiency virus
From chimps (HIV1)
From sooty mangabeys (HIV2)
Probs from slaughter and consumption of bushmeat
o Causes illness in newly infected primates
Rhesus macaques
o Evolved several times in the 20th century
find more resources at
find more resources at
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