POLS 120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Anuja Iyer, Monday Demonstrations In East Germany, Fidesz

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28-03-2018
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NOTE TAKER: Anuja Veeraghanta
CLASS/SECTION: POLS120, Section 1, MW 11:30AM
POLITICAL PARTIES IN DEMOCRACIES
Tetook defiitio of paties:
o Political parties are organizations (i.e. groups that have an internal structure, a
set of rules, functional division of labor, and are oriented toward a goal), usually
grounded in a common ideology, that seek to govern by electing candidates to
public office.
Tetook defiitio of iteest goups:
o Interest groups are organizations, typically narrow in focus, that seek to
influence policy on behalf of their constituents.
Reality is a bit more complex though:
o A modern political party can be subdivided into:
The pat ogaizatio – the full-time officers (chairperson, treasurer,
steering committee, etc.) and support staff who develop strategies and
coordinate party activities.
The pat i the eletoate – the membership base, and especially the
local activists who provide much of the volunteer labor.
The pat i the goeet – the elected or appointed office-holders
in the legislature, the executive branch, the civil service in public
corporations.
The epaded pat – all of the above, plus the various affiliated
interest groups (ex. labor unions, business associations), media
organizations, opinion leaders (ex, journalists, clergy) and major donors
(esp. in countries with limited public financing of parties).
The Functions of Political Parties in Democracies
1. State-society linkages
o Idetifiatio of deads fo the puli iteest atiulatio
o Pakagig of deads ito oad pogaati stateets iteest
aggegatio, usuall guided  a ideolog.
o Political education and mobilization of electorate.
o Recruitment and nomination of candidates for office.
o Organizing and managing election campaigns.
2. Functions within state institutions
o Formation of a government (ex. in parliamentary systems, the leader of the
winning party becomes PM and appoints other senior party members to the
cabinet).
o Structuring of activity with the legislative branch (ex. enforcing of party discipline
in roll call votes)
o Formulation and implementation of public policy (which allows parties to deliver
on their election promises not just the general good but also for their key
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28-03-2018
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constituencies in the form of clientelism (ex. government contracts, subsidies,
pok-ael spedig, et.
o Filling of positions in the state bureaucracy and the public sector of the economy
(which allows parties to engage in patronage, i.e. rewarding supporters with
public sector jobs).
Development of Political Parties
Mid-17th century through the 1910s
o Elite parties: before the era of mass democracy, parities were small groups of
office-seeking elites.
1880s to 1960s
o Mass parties: the coming of universal franchise led to the emergence of parties
that grouped large numbers of ordinary citizens, often on the basis of common
soial lass, ethiit o eligio i.e. this as the ea of okes’ paties, faes’
parties, Catholic parties, etc.)
1960s to Present (?)
o Cath-All paties: the eakeig of lass and religious divisions made it
necessary for parties to seek support from a broad cross-section of the general
public.
1960s to Present (in the USA)
o Rise of the epaded pat i.e. etoks of offie-seekers, interest groups,
donors, and affiliated media) driven by fundraising needs.
o Leads to worries about influence of money in politics.
In other developed democracies:
o Catelizatio of politis  ai stea paties.
Parties lose members, and begin to look less like civic associations and
more like state agencies.
They begin to collude with each other in rent-seeking behavior (i.e.
divvying up the perks of power such as government jobs and contracts)
o Why is it happening:
Aailailit of puli fudig eas less eed fo ees’ dues.
Closer intergration with the state means more opportunities for rent-
seeking behavior (patronage, clientelism, corruption)
In reaction the above, the rise of populist, anti-establisment parties began.
Populism
A stle of disouse efletig fist ode principles about who should rule, claiming
legitia ests ith the people, ot elites.
It eais silet o seod ode piiples, oeig hat should e doe, hat
poliies should e folloed, o hat deisios should e ade.
Populist actors make two core claims:
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