PSYC 111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Stella Chess, Tantrum, Child Development

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2-2 Development III: Social Development !
2-2 Development III: Social Development
Overview:
Temperament
Attachment
Temperament: a basic emotional style that appears early in development
and is largely genetic in origin; individual differences in emotional styles
New York Longitudinal Study — by Stella Chess and Alexander
Thomas
o Longitudinal: followed the same participants over time
o Followed them from early infancy to early adulthood
o Assessed temperament and observed its associations later on
in development
o Interviewers went into family’s homes to interview
o Developed 9 aspects of temperament, and group them into 4
temperament types
Temperament types
Easy: babies who had a typically happy mood; had regular and
rhythmic body functions; are adaptable with mild to moderate
emotional reactions; most common pattern (40% of infants)
o Adaptable — could adapt to environmental conditions easily
Could sleep anywhere
o Mild to moderate emotional reactions
Not tantrum throwers
o Easy for parents
Difficult: babies who tend to have a more negative mood; have
intense emotional reactions; active and move around a lot; may not
need a lot of sleep; irregular activities (10% of infants)
o Unpredictable cycles and rhythms
o Not adaptable — can’t adapt to changes in routine (new
people, new places to sleep)
o Withdraw from new situations, people, or objects
o Lots of loud and persistent crying
o Difficult for parents
Slow-to-Warm-Up: shy, more cautious; withdraw from new things;
slower to adapt to changes; have low to moderate intensity
reactions; low activity level (15% of infants)
o Not tantrum throwers
Average: not particularly high or low in any other temperament
type; don’t show consistent pattern shown in other types (35%)
Longitudinal profiles for the temperament types later in childhood
Easy babies later on
o The kids with the fewest behavior problems
o Had better relationships
o Viewed positively by teachers
Difficult babies later on
o More likely to have behavior problems
o At risk for aggression, lower social competence, irritability
Slow-to-Warm-Up, shy
o Lower in social competence
Nature vs. Nurture
Does this explain what temperament type the children will have
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