PSYC 111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Stella Chess, Tantrum, Child Development

21 views2 pages

For unlimited access to Class Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.

2-2 Development III: Social Development !
2-2 Development III: Social Development
Temperament: a basic emotional style that appears early in development
and is largely genetic in origin; individual differences in emotional styles
New York Longitudinal Study — by Stella Chess and Alexander
o Longitudinal: followed the same participants over time
o Followed them from early infancy to early adulthood
o Assessed temperament and observed its associations later on
in development
o Interviewers went into family’s homes to interview
o Developed 9 aspects of temperament, and group them into 4
temperament types
Temperament types
Easy: babies who had a typically happy mood; had regular and
rhythmic body functions; are adaptable with mild to moderate
emotional reactions; most common pattern (40% of infants)
o Adaptable — could adapt to environmental conditions easily
Could sleep anywhere
o Mild to moderate emotional reactions
Not tantrum throwers
o Easy for parents
Difficult: babies who tend to have a more negative mood; have
intense emotional reactions; active and move around a lot; may not
need a lot of sleep; irregular activities (10% of infants)
o Unpredictable cycles and rhythms
o Not adaptable — can’t adapt to changes in routine (new
people, new places to sleep)
o Withdraw from new situations, people, or objects
o Lots of loud and persistent crying
o Difficult for parents
Slow-to-Warm-Up: shy, more cautious; withdraw from new things;
slower to adapt to changes; have low to moderate intensity
reactions; low activity level (15% of infants)
o Not tantrum throwers
Average: not particularly high or low in any other temperament
type; don’t show consistent pattern shown in other types (35%)
Longitudinal profiles for the temperament types later in childhood
Easy babies later on
o The kids with the fewest behavior problems
o Had better relationships
o Viewed positively by teachers
Difficult babies later on
o More likely to have behavior problems
o At risk for aggression, lower social competence, irritability
Slow-to-Warm-Up, shy
o Lower in social competence
Nature vs. Nurture
Does this explain what temperament type the children will have
Unlock document

This preview shows half of the first page of the document.
Unlock all 2 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class