DEP 3053 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Motivation, Male Reproductive System, Traffic Ticket

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27 Apr 2016
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DEP 3053 (Spring 2016) Midterm Exam 3 Study Guide
Includes Chapters 7 through 9 and additional topics from lectures
Senescence, primary aging, secondary aging, health risks
Senescence- the natural physical decline brought about by increasing age
has begun
Age related changes are not usually obvious until late in life
Some growth continues
Primary aging- or senescence, involves universal and irreversible changes
that due to genetic programing, occur as people get older
Secondary aging- changes in physical and cognitive functioning that are
due to illness, health habits, and other individual differences, but are not
due to increased age itself and are not inevitable
Heath Risks-
Osteoporosis- a condition in which the bones become brittle,
fragile, and thin of then brought about by a lack of calcium in the
Brain gets smaller and lighter
Brain uses less oxygen and glucose and blood flow is reduced
The respiratory system is less efficient and the digestive system
produces less digestive juice and is less efficient in pushing food
through the system
Stress (primary appraisal, secondary appraisal, coping mechanisms, hardiness,
Stress- the physical and emotional response to events that threaten or
challenge us
Primary appraisal- the assessment of an event to determine whether its
implications are positive, negative or neutral
If a person sees the event as primarily negative, he or she
appraises it in terms of the harm that it has caused in the past,
how threatening it is likely to be, and how likely it is that challenge
can be resisted successfully.
EX: you are likely to feel differently about an upcoming French test
if you passed the last one with flying colors, than you would if you
did poorly.
Secondary appraisal- the assessment of whether ones coping abilities and
resources are adequate to overcome the harm, threat, or challenge posed by
the potential stressor.
“can you handle it?”
A traffic ticket is always upsetting but if you can’t afford the fine
the stress is greater
Coping Mechanisms-
Coping- the effort to control, reduce or learn to tolerate the threats
that lead to stress
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DEP 3053 (Spring 2016) Midterm Exam 3 Study Guide
Problem-focused coping- managing a threatening situation by directly
changing it to make it less stressful
EX: a man having difficulties on the job may ask his boss to change his
responsibilities or he may look for another job
Emotion- focused coping- the conscious regulation of emotion
EX: a mother having trouble finding appropriate care for her child
while she is at work may tell herself that she should look at the bright
side; at least she has a job in a difficult economy.
Social Support- assistance and comfort supplied by others
Defensive Coping- coping that involves unconscious strategies that
distort or deny the true nature of a situation
Emotional insulation- people unconsciously try to block emotions and
thereby avoid pain
Hardiness- a personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress-
related illness
Take charge, revel in life’s changes
More resistant to stress0related illnesses than those with less
React to stressors with optimism, convinced that they can respond
Less apt to experience high levels of stress
Resilience- the ability to withstand, overcome, and even thrive after
profound adversity
Easy going and good-natured, with good social and communication
Independent, feeling that they can shape their own fate and are not
dependent on others or luck
Work with what they have and make the best of any situation
Intellectual growth (perspectives: Labouvie-Vief, Schaie)
Postformal thought- thinking that acknowledges that adult predicaments
must sometimes be resoled in realistic terms
Nature of thinking changes during early adulthood
Thinking based solely om formal operations is insufficient to meet
demands placed on young adults
Young adults learn to use analogies and metaphors to make comparisons,
confront societies paradoxes and become comfortable with a more
subjective understanding
Triarchic theory of intelligence, practical intelligence, emotional intelligence
Triarchic theory of intelligence- sternbergs theory that intelligence is made
up of three major components: componential, experimental, and contextual
Componential- involves the mental components used to solve
problems (selecting and using formulas, choosing problem-solving
strategies and in general making use of what has been learning in the
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DEP 3053 (Spring 2016) Midterm Exam 3 Study Guide
Experimental- refers to the relationship between intelligence, prior
experience, and the ability to cope with new situations
oAllows people to relate what they already know to a new
situation and facts never before encountered.
Contextual- takes account of the demands of everyday, real-world
oInvolved on adapting to on the job professional demands
Practical Intelligence- intelligence that is learned primarily by observing
others and modeling their behavior
They understand and handle new situations effectively, reading
people and circumstances insightfully based on their previous
Emotional Intelligence- the set of skills that underlie the accurate
assessment, evaluation, expression and regulation of emotions
Is what enables people to get along well with others, understand what
they are feeling and experiencing and to respond appropriately to
their needs
The combination of responses or ideas in novel ways
Many people do not reach their pinnacle of creativity until later in life
Persons willingness to take risks that may yield high payoffs
Successful stock markets investors
Erikson’s stages early adulthood through late adulthood
Intimacy-versus-isolation stage- according to erikson the period of
postadeolescence into the early 30s that focuses on developing close intimate
relationships with others
oClose, intimate relationship with others, selflessness, sexuality
oFeelings of loneliness, fear of relationships
Generativity-versus-stagnation- the stage during middle adulthood in which
people consider their contributions to family and society
Generativity- looking beyod oneself to continuation of ones life
through others
Stagnation- focusing on the triviality of their life
Important part of adult life
Basic need for belongingness motivates us to establish and maintain
at least a few friendships
Proximity- people form relationships with others who live nearby and
with whom they have frequent contact
More attracted to others who hold attitudes and values similar to
their own
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