PSY 1012 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Ethology, Social Change, Mary Ainsworth

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8 Nov 2018
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Psychoanalytic Approach
Freud:
Biological needs demand satisfaction
-> Caregiver satisfies needs
-> Social relationship
Psychoanalytic Approach
Erickson:
- Infants' demands are centered on care and affection,
not biological needs
- Social development:
Necessary for
personality development
i. Good Infant-Caregiver Relations
-> a trusting, autonomous child
ii. Bad Infant-Caregiver Relations
-> an untrusting, clinging child
Ethologist Theory
- Innate behavioural sequences are set in motion by a particular stimuli.
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- Purpose of Infant-Caregiver Relations:
Psychological Security for Infants
- Infants are biologically programmed to emit certain behaviours to ensure they receive
care-giving activity.
- Attachments and Relationships are Biologically Adaptive:
Infant-Parent Attachment
-> physical proximity
-> Higher probability of survival
- Attachment Relationships
-> a form of 'Imprinting'
Theory of Attachment
(Bowlby 1969)
- Critical Period (of Attachment):
6 months - 9 months.
- Crucial for Emotional Development:
6 months - 4 years.
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