PSY 1012 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Illusory Correlation, Folk Psychology, Naturalistic Observation

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27 Apr 2016
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* Attempts at understanding human behavior predate psychology by: MILLENNIA
1. There are written records characterizing why humans behave the way they do as far back as: ANCIENT
EGYPT
2. As far back as the Neolithic period there is evidence of: TREPANNING
3. Which of the following people believed that the entire universe was made up of tiny indivisible atoms?
DEMOCRITUS
4. Which of the following people believed that all intelligence could be broken down into basic associations?
ARISTOTLE
5. Which group generally produced the greatest amount of prescientific explanations of behavior?
RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHERS
6. Paracelsus was a(n): ALCHEMIST
7. Paracelsus was the first person in Western medicine to document the: PLACEBO EFFECTS
8. The first scientific field to develop was: PHYSICS
9. One of the first scientific descriptions of nerves was as: HOLLOW TUBES FILLED WITH FLUID
10. Which of the following scientists proposed that vibrations sent from the brain to the muscle through the
nervous system controlled movement? NEWTON
11. Which of the following scientists showed that nerves are not hollow tubes? LEEUWENHOEK
12. Early research on electricity used which of the following devices: LEYDEN JARS
13. One of the first doctors to apply electricity to dead human bodies in an attempt to resuscitate them was
named: ALDINI
14. This person was one of the first people to attempt reanimating dead animals with electricity:
KRATZENSTEIN
15. Which of the following people showed that electricity travels through nerves and not fluids? GALVANI
16. Animal electricity is: WHAT GALVANI DISCOVERED AFTER ACCIDENTALLY TOUCHING AN ELECTRIC PADDLE
TO THE LEG OF A DEAD FROG
17. Who believed that the nervous system functioned like a hydraulics system? DESCARTES
18. This person applied electricity to the heads of decapitated prisoners and the heads grimace: ALDINI
19. This person treated his patients by exposing them to the shocks of electric eels: ALDINI
20. This person is credited with developing the field of psychophysics: WEBER
21. Which of the following represents the way in which your sensory system detects changes in stimuli?
CURVILINEAR
22. This person established the first accurate measure of nerve conduction speed: HELMHOLTZ
23. Who used the subtraction method? DONDERS AND HELMHOLTZ
24. The Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies was develop by: MULLER
25. The compartmentalization of the brain was described through the _______ by Muller: DOCTRINE OF
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SPECIFIC NERVE ENERGIES
26. This person is credited with developing the theory of evolution: DARWIN
27. How many relevant colors are there in the Young-Helmholtz theory of color vision? THREE
28. Donders was the first person to measure: THE DURATION OF DECISIONS
29. Mental chronometry is still use today to study: COGNITIVE THOUGHT PROCESSES
30. This person is credited with developing the very first psychology laboratory: WUNDT
31. The name of the surgical technique used to remove a piece of the brain: ABLATION
32. Ancient peoples attempted to release evil spirits from the mind using which technique discussed in this
chapter? TREPANNING
33. Charles Darwin’s influence on the development of psychology was to show that: THERE IS WIDESPREAD
STRUCTURAL SIMILARITIES IN THE BIOLOGY OF DIFFERENT ANIMALS
34. Darwin’s first book describing evolutionary theory, “On the Origin of Species,” was first published in: 1859
35. This person pioneered the ablation experiment as a way to map the brain: FLOURENS
36. Which of the following people was not involved in 19th-century biological psychology? WATSON
37. Who is credited with developing the field of psychology and in what year is psychology said to have
begun? WUNDT, 1879
38. Historians of science generally agree that the field of psychology began in: LEIPZIG GERMANY IN 1879
39. Which of the following scientific discoveries was not part of the development of modern psychology in the
first half of the 20th century? THE MAPPING OF THE SURFACE OF THE BRAIN
40. Which of the following social issues was not a major component in the development of modern
psychology during the 20th century? THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION
41. Which of the following had the LEAST effect on the development of psychology in the 20th century (HINT:
Which one was NOT discussed in the chapter): THE SELF-POTENTIAL MOVEMENT OF THE 1970’s
42. A(n) ____ is a standardized definition that allows something to be identified in a publicly observable form:
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
43. Which of the following cannot be measured directly? DREAMING
44. Which of the following can be measured directly? TALKING
45. To fit the proper definition of a behavior, a dependent measure must be: PUBLICLY OBSERVABLE,
DIRECTLY MEASURABLE, CLEARLY DEFINED, OBJECTIVE
46. When measuring behavior, which of the following should you never do? COUNT THE ABSENCES OF
BEHAVIOR
47. A good therapist will count ____ in therapy to determine the improvement of her patient: THE NUMBER
OF APPROPRIATE RESPONSES
48. When you study a person's dreams you are actually measuring: VERBAL REPORTS
49. Which of the following people was responsible for developing the school behaviorism? WATSON
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50. Which of the following people was responsible for further elaborating the school of behaviorism?
SKINNER
51. Psychology is the scientific study of: BEHAVIOR
52. Which of the following things can be directly measured? MY CAT EATS GRASS
53. Which of the following events is not referred to when speaking behavioralese? EMOTIONS
54. Which of the following is a behavioral correlate of anger? PUNCHING THE WALL
55. Members of the behavioral school would generally reject ideas that contain: INTERNAL MENTAL EVENTS
56. Which of the following statements is true? IT IS LIKELY THAT PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCHERS HAVE TO
CONTROL FOR REACTIVITY IN JUST ABOUT ANY HUMAN SUBJECT EXPERIMENT THAT THEY CREATE
57. Which of the following approaches to the understanding of behavior shows the least promise of
success? FOLK PSYCHOLOGY
58. When choosing a target behavior, which of the following things should you avoid? SUBJECTIVE MEASURES
59. When choosing a target behavior, which of the following things showed you do? USE AN OBJECTIVE
MEASURE
60. When a subject’s behavior changes because they believe they are being watched: REACTIVITY
61. Writing down the behavior of people while in clear view of them may cause a problem with:
REACTIVITY
62. Folk psychology:
PREDATED SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY
IS FREQUENTLY HEARD ON TALK SHOWS AND SELF-HELP PROGRAMS
IS TREATED AS FACT
HAS NO SCIENTIFIC BASIS
63. Which of the following does not belong to the descriptive method? CORRELATIONS
64. Case studies generally involve: ONE SUBJECT
65. Naturalistic observation typically involves: JUST WATCHING YOUR SUBJECTS
66. Naturalistic observations are part of which general research design: DESCRIPTION
67. Surveys and polls may be considered highly developed forms of scientific methodology: FALSE
68. Which of the following does involve an attempt to control variables? EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY
69. Which of the following involves the measurement of at least two variables that the experimenter does not
control? CORRELATIONAL METHODOLOGY
70. Which of the following methods is most closely related to Pearson's product moment test?
CORRELATIONAL METHODOLOGY
71. Positive correlations are more valuable than negative correlations: FALSE
72. A correlation of +0.92 is stronger than a correlation of -0.92: FALSE
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