PSY 1012 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Detection Theory, Pastry Chef, Neural Adaptation

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27 Apr 2016
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Chapter 5 Study Guide
1. Overall, sensation and perception are a product of:
a. Static biological process and dynamic learning processes
2. Sensation is to perception as:
a. Biology is to learning
3. The view of perception that suggests our perceptions accurately reflect the world around
us.
a. Naive realism
4. Which of the following is NOT an argument against naïve realism?
a. Sensory adaption
5. The reduced responsiveness observed when one is exposed to the same stimulus event
constantly.
a. Sensory adaptation
6. Which of the following is NOT an example of sensory adaptation?
a. The fatigue you feel worsens the longer you walk
7. The moon looks ____ when it is ____ than when it is ____.
a. Larger; near the horizon; in the sky
8. The role of sensory adaption implies that the brain:
a. Generally only responds to changes
9. Ambiguous figures can be observed:
a. Only one way at a time
10. A figure which can perceived one way or another but not both ways at the same time.
a. Ambiguous figure
11. What are three problems with the naïve realism view of sensation?
a. Perceptual differences between people; sensory adaption; illusions
12. When the perception of an object does not agree with the physical characteristics of that
object it is called a(n):
a. Illusion
13. The field of study that examines the connection between physical stimuli and human
perception is called:
a. Psychophysics
14. Models of sensation do not need to refer to issues of learning and memory.
a. True
15. Models of perception do not need to refer to issues of biology.
a. False
16. Models of sensation do need to refer to issues of learning and memory.
a. False
17. Models of perception do need to refer to issues of biology.
a. True
18. Which of the following is NOT a known perceptual illusion?
a. Helmholtz grid
19. An illusion in which line lengths appear different due to “arrows” at the end of each line is
called:
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a. Muller-Lyer illusion
20. An illusion in which line lengths appear different because they are embedded in a pair of
intersecting lines (e.g., the lines of railroad tracks coming together in the distance).
a. Ponzo illusion
21. An illusion in which long truly-horizontal lines appear to be rising or falling due to short
angled lines cutting through each longer line.
a. Zollner illusion
22. An illusion in which gray dots appear in the intersection of a series of square black dots.
a. Hermann grid
23. The process by which an energy source outside your body is converted into an action
potential.
a. Transduction
24. Where are energy sources converted to action potentials?
a. Sensory receptors
25. The perception you computer screen you are looking at is a direct representation of the
screen itself.
a. False
26. Your perception of the outside world is really created from a running series of neural
impulses that fire in a complex—however—unique pattern.
a. True
27. The full range of sensory capacities that you have is the same set of sensory capacities
that all animals have.
a. False
28. Once action potentials from a sensory receptor reach the brain they travel through
particular circuits which analyze the sensation. If you electrically stimulate those circuits
a person will experience those sensory experiences.
a. True
29. What is the name for the field of study which analyzes the relationship between physical
stimuli and the perceptions they produce?
a. Psychophysics
30. The field of psychophysics developed before the field of psychology.
a. True
31. In which decade did Fechner coin the term psychophysics?
a. 1860
32. Which of the following is the name for the minimal amount of energy required to detect a
stimulus?
a. Absolute threshold
33. In a completely quiet room John notices at some point that he can hear mice in the
walls.
a. Absolute threshold
34. Which of the following is the name for the minimal amount of energy required to detect a
change in a stimulus?
a. Difference threshold
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35. While watching television at home John can hear a small child crying outside of his
house.
a. Difference threshold
36. Which of the following is the name for the psychological unit of measurement which
corresponds to detecting changes between stimuli?
a. Just noticeable difference
37. Ethan is practicing his skills to be a coffee taster for the Starbucks Company. He realizes
that to detect increasing amounts of bitterness in the coffee the concentration of bitter
molecules must increase exponentially. What psychophysical property does this reflect?
a. Just noticeable difference
38. Jameson is practicing his skills to be a pastry chef at a five star restaurant. He realizes
that to detect increasing amounts of sweetness in his pastries the concentration of sugar
must increase exponentially. What psychophysical property does this reflect?
a. Just noticeable difference
39. Nina is practicing her skills as a scent expert for a high end perfume manufacturer. She
realizes that to detect increasing amounts of rose petals in her perfume the
concentration of rose extract must increase exponentially. What psychophysical property
does this reflect?
a. Just noticeable difference
40. Which of the following is the name for the primary approach to study psychophysics?
a. Signal detection theory
41. Which of the following researchers did NOT study psychophysics?
a. Vygotsky
42. In general, signal detection theory experiments try to:
a. Differentiate among the various factors which influence a subjects response to a
stimulus
43. Which of the following is NOT a typical factor studied in a signal detection experiment?
a. Gender
44. Which of the following animals can detect stimulus of any sort outside the range of
human capacity?
a. (Elephant, Dog, Bee) - All of the above
45. The relationship between the level of a just-noticeable-difference (jnd) and the standard
stimulus from which the jnd is based.
a. Weber’s law
46. Leslie can lift 100 pounds and all the weight she lifts feels the same right down to 90
pounds. Which of the following is true? Leslie can:
a. Just notice the difference between 1 lb and 0.9 lb
47. Kayla can lift 200 pounds and all the weight she lifts feels the same right down to 150
pounds. Which of the following is true? Leslie can:
a. Just notice the difference between 1 lb and 0.75 lb
48. Caitlin can just hear the difference between a 1,000 Hz tone and a 750 Hz tone. Which
of the following is true? Leslie can:
a. Just notice the difference between 10,000 Hz and 7,500 Hz
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