SOP 3004 Lecture Notes - Lecture 28: Drive Theory, Group Polarization, In Essence

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22 Apr 2016

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1. Defining a group
a. A group is a collection of two or more interacting persons who
share common goals, have a stable relationship, are somehow
interdependent, and perceive they are in fact a group
2. Why do people belong to groups?
a. Groups help us satisfy important psychological or social needs
(e.g. belonging, receiving attention or affection from others,
b. Groups help us achieve goals - it helps us perform tasks we
couldn’t do alone
c. Group membership contributes to a positive social identity and
contributes to self-concept. The more prestigious/restrictive the
group to which an individual belongs, the more self-concept is
bolstered. Social identity.
3. Roles
a. The set of behaviours/functions that individuals in specific
positions are expected to perform. Roles help clarify the
responsibilities and obligations of the person belonging to the
b. Roles exist independently of the individual, allowing continuation
of a role beyond that individual’s tenure in it. People need
flexible selves to fit into these roles
c. Groups need to create roles (expectation by the group for how
members in particular positions are to behave). This is more
efficient because it is rarely desirable to have every member
contribute in the same way.
4. Satus
a. Relative social position or rank within a group. Many people
desire high status thus groups can use it to control members by
using it as reward/punishment.
b. Status hierarchy: ranking of members by power and influence
over other members
5. Norms
a. Rules (implicit and explicit) established by various groups to
regulate the behaviour of its members. Norms tell people how to
behave (prescriptive) and how not to behave (proscriptive).
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