SOP 3004 Lecture Notes - Lecture 32: Passive-Aggressive Behavior, Anti-Social Behaviour, David Buss

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22 Apr 2016
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AGGRESSION
1. Aggressive behaviour
a. Any behaviour directed towards the goal of harming another
living being who is motivated to avoid such harm (Baron and
Richardson)
2. Assertiveness
a. Behaviour intended to express dominance or confidence
3. Violence
a. Aggression that has as its goal extreme physical harm, such as
injury or death. All violent acts are aggressive acts, but not all
aggressive acts are violent
4. Antisocial behaviour
a. Behaviour that either damages interpersonal relationships or is
currently undesirable.
5. State-trait
a. Buss has argued that if the state is frequent the trait may
develop. That is, if one is angry frequently a negative outlook or
hostile bias may develop
6. Direct/indirect
a. Direct: behaviour intended to hurt someone to “his/her face”
b. Behaviour intended to hurt someone without face-to-face
confrontation
7. Emotional/instrumental
a. Emotional/hostile: “hot”, impulsive, angry behaviour that is
motivated by a desire to harm someone. That is, hurtful
stemming from angry feelings
b. Instrumental: “cold”, premeditated, calculated harmful
behaviour that is a means to someone practical or material end.
Hurting another to accomplish some other (nonaggressive) goal
8. Physical/verbal
a. Physical: aggression that is delivered via physical route
b. Verbal: aggression that is delivered via a verbal route
9. Passive/active
a. Passive aggression is harming others by withholding a behaviour
b. Active aggression is harming others by performing a behaviour
10. Instinct theories - Drive toward death and destruction?
11. Freud - Catharsis and displacement
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