SYP 2450 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Power Transition Theory, Global Financial System, European Colonialism

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Global Society
WHAT IS GLOBALIZATION?
Globalization- refers to shrinking distances among the continents, a wider
geographic sense of vulnerability; and a worldwide interconnectedness of
important aspects of human life, religion, migration, war, finance, trade, disease,
drugs, and music. Payne
Rapid increase in worldwide interactions
FOUR MAJOR DIMENSIONS:
History- preious periods of rapid irease
Economics- increase in market interaction
Politics- increases in state and NGO interaction
Culture- increasing flow of ideas and populations
-twin peaks in data= earlier ways to see globalization
GLOBAL ISSUES 2.1
THE MODERN STATE
Pre-Thirty Years War-(1618-1648) Europe was governed by a combination of catholic
church and kings
Multi-Religious and multi-authority territories led to extremely violent conflict.
Peace of Westphalia- (1648) established modern ideas of state sovereignty.
Four kinds of Sovereignty:
International legal: being recognized by other states
Westphalian: being free from other states influence on your government
Internal: being able to maintain a monopoly of power within your borders
Interdependence: being able to regulate flows from the rest of the word through your
borders
SOVEREIGNTY VS. GLOBALIZATION
Example of an IGO with both positive and negative effects: European Union
Globalization and Interdependence:
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Interdependence between states and societies: ancient and nearly unavoidable
What happens when we combine interdependence and globalization?
-Globalization increases the amount and impact of such independence. (1880-1814)
peak, (1980-2017) peak
High levels of interdependence, if not controlled carefully can erode state sovereignty
and thus increase vulnerability
FIVE WAVES OF GLOBALIZATION
Gloalizatio is a proess that adaes ad retreats-Payne
First Wave: trade, migration, and conquest for the last few thousand years
-Still, little connection between major regions
-Africa, Americas, Europe/Near East, East Asia
Second Wave: from 1492, European explorers discovered and claimed the Americas,
trading routes in Africa and Asia
-Long distance sail, cannon and firearms, diseases
Third Wave: from 1870-1914, an unprecedented rise in trade, capital flows, migration of
people, spread of European colonialism
-Railways, telegraphs, steam power for ships and industry
-The first of our ti peaks!
Fourth Wave: a period of aaged gloalizatio fro -73
-From WW2 until the 1970s w/ countries connected by the Bretton Woods System of
international monetary arrangements
-Eded i  he the Uited “tates dissoled Bretto Woods ad ore free
arket poliies took hold i the s
-The Result: highest growth rates in the century, fast productivity growth and
technological innovation, low inequality within each country
-Importantly, wages raising in line with productivity
Fifth Wave: fro  to toda, a upreedeted iterdepedee aog atios
and the explosive growth of powerful non-state ators- Payne
-“oeties alled eolieral gloalizatio sie eolieralis eae er popular
in this phase
-Very Useful: comparing the Breton Woods globalization to Neoliberal Globalization
TWO DEBATES ABOUT GLOBALIZATION
First: how much is globalization actually occurring?
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- Hyper globalizers and Transformationalists
- Weak globalizations, Skeptics and rejectionists
Second: Is globalization good or bad? Avoidable or permanent?
- It’s ostly good:
- Helps communication
- Encourages global cooperation on environmental and political issues
- Gies people freedo to hoose here to lie
- Promotes diversity within countries
- It’s ofte ad:
- destroys real diversity by homogenizing cultures
- weakens wages and employment
- empowers global finance over national governments
- creates ethnic conflict and increases inequality within countries
The Struggle for Primacy in A Global Society:
States Interaction On A Global Stage
Power transition theory
Rise ad fall of great poers
- The Greatest power: a hegemon
Hegemons in the West:
- The United Provinces (Netherlands) 16th-18th century
- United Kingdom late 18th- 1914
- United States 1945-today
Several Great Powers: multipolar
Two Great powers: bipolar
A single great power: unipolar
Hegemonic Goals and Methods:
Power- the ability to get others to act in ways they would otherwise avoid
Two kinds of state power:
- Domination
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