SYG 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Scientific Method, Intravenous Therapy, Milgram Experiment

36 views2 pages
21 Apr 2016
School
Department
Course
CHAPTER 2: UNDERSTANDING THE RESEARCH PROCESS
I. PURPOSE OF SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH
-- challenge commonly held beliefs
-- solve social problems
II. SCIENCE AS SOURCE OF KNOWLEDGE
A. DEFINITION OBJECTIVITY “don’t let personal biases affect your
personal work”
B. HOW TO INCREASE OBJECTIVITY
--carefully design research
--state theoretical perspective (functionalist, conflict, interactionist, etc.)
* VERIFIABILITY: repeat previously done studies
III. STEPS IN RESEARCH PROCESS “scientific method” [read it!]
IV. BASIC RESEARCH CONCEPTS
A. CAUSATION: events occur in predictable ways; one leads to another
B. HYPOTHESIS: an educated guess; what’s being tested
*I hypothesize that studying more hours per week leads me to get higher grades.*
WILL BE ON TEST!!!
C. INDEPENDENT (cause) VS DEPENDENT (effect) VARIABLE
V. ESTABLISHING CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP
A. ESTABLISH CORRELATION (Δx  Δy)
* POSITIVE (+x  +y) VS. NEGATIVE (+x  –y) CORRELATION
B. AVOID SPURIOUS CORRELATION (relationship between 2 variables is
actually produced by 3rd variable)
C. NOTE TIME ORDER (make sure that i.v. happens before d.v.)
D. MULTIPLE CAUSATION (an event occurs as the result of several factors
acting in combination; “several i.v.’s  d.v.”)
VI. TYPES OF SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH
A. EXPERIMENT
--closely control variables
--least common (ethically difficult)
--e.g. Zimbardo’s Stanford prison experiment
B. SURVEY (most socio. research; quantitative research—large, use stats to
analyze data)
1. SAMPLE (limited # of cases drawn from the population to be studied)
2. OPEN-ENDED VS FIXED-CHOICE QUESTIONS
C. FIELDWORK/ETHNOGRAPHY (research occurring in a natural setting)
*INTERVIEW
*PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION (become a member of the group you’re
studying, either with or w/o informing the group that you’re a researcher)
D. LIFE HISTORIES (create biography of a person/group)
E. HISTORICAL RESEARCH
F. COMPARATIVE RESEARCH
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows half of the first page of the document.
Unlock all 2 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class