SYG 1000 Lecture 6: Outline Ch3_ Culture

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21 Apr 2016
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CHAPTER 3: CULTURE
I. CULTURE
A. DEFINITION “A way of life”
B. TYPES
1. MATERIAL “what you can pick up on w/ the senses”
2. NON-MATERIAL
C. SOCIETY (share a common culture)
II. DIMENSIONS OF CULTURE
A. NORMATIVE
1. NORMS
a. FOLKWAYS: customary ways of acting that lack moral
overtones (“common courtesies”)
b. MORES: norms of huge moral significance; defying =
strong disapproval *not all mores are laws*
c. LAWS: norms formally defined and enforced
2. SANCTIONS (ways that we enforce rewards—rewards & punishments)
a. FORMAL (given only by officially designated people)
b. INFORMAL (can be given by anyone)
3. VALUES
Principles that we claim to accept
B. COGNITIVE (refers to a culture’s beliefs)
* BELIEFS
C. MATERIAL (anything you can pick up from your senses)
*same physical object can have different meanings in different cultures*
III. IDEAL (guidelines we claim to accept; “what we say we do”) VS REAL (actual behavior
patterns; “what we really do”) CULTURE
IV. CULTURAL DIVERSITY (differences between people)
A. SUBCULTURE (group that’s part of the dominant culture but differs from it in some
respect)
B. COUNTERCULTURE (subculture that is deliberately opposed to some aspect of
the dominant culture)
C. ETHNOCENTRISM (judge others based on your own cultural standards)
D. CULTURAL RELATIVISM (norms, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors are not
themselves right or wrong but rather they should be judged in their own cultural context) *vestehen,
Weber*
V. CULTURAL SIMILARITY
A. CULTURAL UNIVERSALS (behaviors shared by all known cultures); I.E.:
education, athletics, division of labor, etc.
B. CULTURAL PARTICULARS (although cultures share universals, they do these
universals in different ways)
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