SYG 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Bourgeoisie, Auguste Comte, Harriet Martineau

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21 Apr 2016
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CHAPTER 1: SOCIOLOGY IN A CHANGING WORLD
I. SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION
A. The ability to see relationship between events in personal life & events in your society;
“Seeing the things ‘out there’ and how”
B. EXAMPLES: Why some ppl don’t have paid jobs
^ THROUGHOUT SEMESTER: “acknowledge individual, consider outside factors”
II. SOCIOLOGY
A. DEFINITION: the study of human social life (people, groups, cultures)
B. STRUCTURATION: the 2-way process by which we shape our social world and by
which we are shaped by society
C. LEVELS OF ANALYSIS:
--MACRO (large social structures w/o referring
to the interaction of individuals involved)
--micro (interactions between individ.)
D. SKILLS 4 SOSH: critical thinking
data analysis (stats; interviewing)
diversity
subfields
III. EUROPEAN ORIGINS OF SOCIOLOGY
A. AUGUST COMTE (founder; “we must study social statics [refers to stability and
order] and social dynamics [refers to social change]”)
B. HARRIET MARTINEAU (Feminist theory; fought for women’s rights, abolitionist)
C. HERBERT SPENCER (came up with Social Darwinism; “survival of the fittest”; you
could be messed up biologically or culturally inferior;
MODERN SOCIOLOGISTS DO NOT ACCEPT THIS)
D. KARL MARX (conflict theory; “society is a big power struggle between bourgeoisie
[haves] and proletariat [have nots]”)
E. EMILE DURKHEIM (functionalism; suicide study [some were accurate, others not so
much])
F. MAX WEBER (verstehen “vish-tayin’”, a.k.a.: empathy UNDERSTAND OTHERS’
POINTS OF VIEW)
IV. AMERICAN ORIGINS OF SOCIOLOGY
A. JANE ADDAMS (Social work w/ marginalized [“treated like crap”] people: poor,
elderly, immigrants)
B. W.E.B. DUBOIS (structure of black communities)
V. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES
A. FUNCTIONALISM
--MACRO; Durkheim
--“Different parts of society are interrelated, like the human body;
change in onechanges in other parts”
--e.g.: “pre-industrial to industrial = family size decreased”; healthcare
--Positive/optimistic
--Manifest funct. (intended and recognized) = “main”; Latent funct. (less recognized)
B. CONFLICT THEORY
--MACRO; Marx
--“argues that society experiences conflict everywhere” [real easy, brah…]
--power and inequality
--critical, focused on problems… but usually right
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