CLP 3140 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Cognitive Therapy, Cognitive Model

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8 Feb 2017

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Psychological Models of Unipolar Depression
- Psychodynamic treatment
o Psychodynamic therapists use the same basic procedures for all
psychological disorders
Free association
Therapist interpretation
Review of past events and feelings
- Behavioral treatment
o Behavioral therapists use a variety of strategies to help increase the
number of rewards experienced by their clients
Reintroduce clients to pleasurable activities and events, often
using a weekly schedule
Appropriately reinforce their depressive and nondepressive
Help them improve their social skills
o The behavioral techniques seem to be of only limited help when just
one of them is applied
When two or more of the techniques are combined, behavioral
treatment may reduce depressive symptoms, particularly if
Lewinsohn has combined behavioral techniques with cognitive
strategies in recent years.
- Cognitive treatment
o Many studies have produced evidence in support of Beck’s
High correlation between the level of depression and the
number of maladaptive attitudes held
Both the cognitive triad and errors in logic are seen in people
with depression
Automatic thinking has been linked to depression
Psychological Models of Unipolar Depression
- Cognitive model: LEARNED HELPLESSNESS model (Seligman)
o Asserts that people become depressed when they lose control over
the reinforcement (rewards and punishments) in their lives and feel
responsible for this helpless state
o There has been significant research support for this model
- Cognitive treatments: BECK’S COGNITIVE THERAPY
o Includes a number of behavioral techniques- is designed to help
clients recognize and change their negative cognitive processes
o Follows four phases and usually lasts fewer then 20 sessions
Increasing activities and elevating mood
Challenging automatic thoughts
Identifying negative thinking and biases
Changing primary attitudes
The Sociocultural Model of Unipolar Depression
- Family-social Treatments
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