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Lecture 1

IHS 4504 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Oral Cancer, Literature Review, Problem Solving

Interdis. Health Sciences
Course Code
IHS 4504
Jayanta Gupta

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Research
What is research?
- Research is not limited to any one profession or discipline.
- Research is used by entities ranging from pharmaceutical companies to basketball
- However, the research process used to conduct these studies is similar.
- Researh is a systeati, otrolled, epirial, a oral, puli ad ritial
iestigatio. – Kerlinger and Lee
- Multiple, systeati strategies to geerate koledge aout hua ehavior, human
experience, and human environment in which the thinking and action processes of the
researcher are clearly specified so that they are logical, understandable, confirmable,
ad useful- DePoy and Gitlin
Others definition of research
- A ay to gather information and make a sound decision or judgement or develop new
koledge – Berlin and Latin
- A proess through hih e koledge is disoered -Salkind
- A systeati iestigatio iolig the aalysis of olleted iforatio or data that
ultimately is used to enhance health education knowledge or practice and answers one
or more questions about a health-related theory ehaior or pheoeo Health
Education research- McMillan and Wergin
Approaches to research
- Quantitative research (deals with numbers)
o Positivist, experimental or empiricist approach to research
o Steps:
Stating the problem
Stating testable hypothesis
Designing a study to test the hypotheses
Conducting the study
Analyzing the data using appropriate statistical tests
Identifying new questions
o E.g.. Measuring body fat pre and post diet program in a group that underwent a
diet program and comparing it with the body fat in a second group with no diet
- Qualitative research (words)
o Interpretative, constructivist, post positivist and naturalistic approach to
o Designed to answer questions about the complex nature of phenomena with the
purpose of describing, explaining and understanding the phenomena
o Researcher records words and phrases looking for meaning, concepts or theory.
o E.g. study done to find out why people want to lose weight.
- Mixed methods research: when both quantitative data provide a better, more though
understanding of the research question being studied.
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