ANT-2000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Sahelanthropus, Foramen Magnum, Radiometric Dating

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26 Oct 2016
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Hominin = after the split from common ancestor shared with chimpanzee
Michel Brunet got permission from the Chad government to look for fossils on the
Toros-Menalla Site in the Djurab Desert. Fossils were found from about 6-7 million years
ago
In 2001, Ahounta Djimdoumalbaye discovered a hominin cranium
- Touai Cranium. Toumai means hope in the local language
- Sahelanthropus tchadensis (“ahel hua fro Chad)
- The cranium has a massive brow ridge
Sahelanthropus tchadensis (the blue shows the traits that are similar to hominins)
- Flat (non-projecting face)
- Massive brow ridge
- Smaller canines and no canine-cutting complex (human-like)
- 320-380 cc
- back of skull and muscles attachment areas look ape-like
- central foramen magnum suggests bipedalism
Ardipithecus ramidus Ardi
- announced in 2009
- discovered in 1994
- Middle Awash, Ethiopia
Ethiopia has become a very important place for hominin fossils because it is an area
of tectonic plates which means that it is changing all the time. There is also volcanic
activity; the ash is good for radiometric dating
- 4.4 millions years ago, woodland habitat
- 4 feet, 110 pounds
- knee is fully extended, hip is fully extended which suggests bipedalism
Graspig foot like a hipazee, whih shows that the ipedalis is’t eatl the
same as humans.
- Long arms, large hands suggests suspensory
- Oe Loejoy says The coo acestor looked like Ardi.
Australopithecus afarensis
- Hadar, Northern Ethiopia
- 1973knee
- 1974Lucy (AL-288)
about 40% of the body was found
inward angle of the femur, keeping the knees and feet close together
- 1975AL-333 (remains of about 13+ individuals)
- 1993AL444 (fossil cranium)
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