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ANT 2301 (23)

Mating Systems

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Florida State University
ANT 2301
Geoffrey Thomas

ANT 09-17 NOTES  OUTLINE o Primate systems  Ecological influence o Human systems  Evolution  Polygamy, monogamy  Foragers  SOCIAL ORGANIZATION DETERMINED BY: o Food needed to  Sustain  Growth and development  Cell repair  Reproduction  4 parts of energy required o Basal metabolism- at rest o Active metabolism- amount expended usually about twice basal o Growth rate- the younger and growing require more o Reproductive effort- females requires 25% more in late pregnancy, lactation 50% more o The bigger you get, the more relatively lower metabolic rate (using less energy, so doesn’t need as much nutrients)  Diet must: o Satisfy energy requirement  Fats and oils high energy, about twice as much as carbohydrates o Provide specific types of nutrients  Primates need amino acids, protein essential for growth, reproduction  Minerals—iron to synthesize hemoglobin  Vitamin d for metabolizing calcium and phosphorous  Sodium to regulate quantity/ dist. Of body fluid o Minimize exposure to toxins o Generalizations  All rely on at least one food type high in protein + one high in carbohydrates  Promsimians: protein= insects; carbs=gum, fruit  Monkey: protein= insects, leaves; carbs=fruit o Diets:  Insectivore: mainly insects (bushbaby) smallest  Frugivore: mainly fruits (spider monkey) slightly larger  Folivore: mainly foliage (langur) largest  Herbivore: mainly herbs (rhesus macaque)  Gumivore: mainly gum o Small vs large  Small animals need relatively >energy  Small amounts of high quality foods  Large need quantity over quality  Spend time processing low quality foods o Foraging in the forest  Can be dist. Patchily even in tropical forests  Variation over year  Fruit often ripe for only 1 month on a individual tree  Diet o More leaves than fruit or insects o More mature leaves than young o Leaves more uniformly distributed and predictable in space and time o Folivores can find more food than frugivores or insectivores in smaller home ranges but must deal with toxins o Important:  Food dist. Affects raging patterns  Ranging patterns affect grouping patterns and thus social organization and mating systems  SOCIAL ORGANIZATION  Female ranging patterns map onto the flood in the environment  Males ranging patterns map onto the females  TYPES OF MATING SYSTMES  Monogamy o 1 male and 1 female form a breeding pair  Polygamy o 2 types  Polygyny- 1 males and 2+ females (poly jenny- more than 1 girl)  Polyandry- 1 female and 2+ males (polyandry- more than one boy)  Only marmosets, and tamarins (has twins)  Multiple troop system  Several males and females form a social unit  Monogamy  Gibbons  Characteristics: o Limited mating opportunities o High male investment o High male confidence in paternity o Little sexual dimorphism o Territoriality- male and female resource guarding o Evolutions  Hypothesis:  1. Monogamy evolves when male parental care is indispensable to female reproduction  2. Monogamy evolves when aggression by mated females leads to their spatial separation and prevents males from acquiring additional mates o Territoriality  Females defend food and males defend female  Mate defense  Males defend females from outside males o Promiscuity  Refers to when
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