Class Notes (839,541)
United States (326,029)
ANT 2301 (23)
Lecture

Marriage Practices

7 Pages
68 Views

Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT 2301
Professor
Geoffrey Thomas

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ANT NOTES 10-22  Factors influencing attraction o Proximity  Mere exposure  People are likely to live near people of similar economic, social backgrounds o Physical attraction  High level of agreement across cultures (Langlois 2000)  Babies prefer attractive faces  Different cultures “improve” beauty in different ways (Newman 2000)  Different boy types are judged to be more attractive in different parts of the world (Anderson 1992)  Body type standards vary over time (Silverstein 1986) o Similarity  Schuster and Elderton (1906)  Married couples report significant agreement about politics and religion  Friends were more similar in attitudes, beliefs, values, and interests  We like those who are like ourselves (Galton)  Romantic pairs are similar in physical attractiveness (Zajonc 1987) o Reciprocity  People like positive feedback (Coleman, Jussim, & Abraham 1987)  Being liked leads to positive interpersonal behavior  Over time, people prefer increasing affinity rather than decreasing affinity (Aroson 1965)  Known as the “couple’s curse” o Courtship  Females  Behaviors were defined as subset of nonverbal behavior that consistently resulted in male attention  52 items identified  Courtship found to be more important that physical attraction for garnering male interest  Males  Submissive displays: palms up, shoulder shrug, titl head  Dominance displays: entering personal space, putting arm around shoulder, swagger  Resource displays: paying for food, drink, wearing expensive clothes, bragging  The less ritualized and more original his approach is, the more likely a woman is to accept it  Love o Difference in brain activity  Love vs lust  VTA- Ventral Tegmental Area  Caudate Nucleus o Neurotransmitters have a profound effect on sexual attraction  Phenylethylamine (PEA) and dopamine o PEA  Neurotransmitter ass. With intense passion and attraction  Surging levels accompany the initial elation and intense excitement and euphoria of new love  Similar to amphetamines  “When we meet someone who is attractive to us, the whistle blows at the PEA factory” o Dopamine  Allied to pleasure, reward, and addiction  Its release produces great pleasure  Similar to amphetamines  Picture of our beloved leads to heightened activity in parts of the frontal lobes saturated w/ dopamine receptors  Love styles o Hendrick & Hendrick (1993)  Found 6 love styles- partners tend to have similar love styles o Eros- passionate love  Love at first sight  Men typically have higher ratings  34% of subjects rate high on this scale o Storge – friendship love  Very close friendship becomes love  66% of subject rate high on this scale  Women typically have higher ratings o Ludus- Game-playing love  Flirtatious and not committed  2% of subject rate high  Men typically have higher ratings o Mania- possessive love  Feeling of ownership over lover  2%of subjects rate high  Women typically higher ratings o Pragma- logical love  Cognitive appreciation for other’s quality  17% of subjects rate ‘high’  Women typically higher ratings o Agape- Selfless love  Putting one’s lover above one’s self  2% of subjects rate ‘high’  Highly correlated w/ religiosity o Triarchich model of love  3 aspects (Sternberg 1986)  Intimacy (Liking)  Closeness two people feel psychological, how well partners understand each other  Passion (Infatuation)  Amount of physical/ sexual attraction and romance  Commitment (Empty Love)  The cognitive factors such as the decision to maintain the friendship  I+P = romantic love  I+C= Companionate love  P+C= fatuous love o Equity theory  Homans 1969, Messick & Cook 1983  Economic model of love  Rewards: love, companionship consolation, sexual gratification, social acceptance  Costs: work to maintain relationship, conflict, compromise, sacrifice of other opportunities for relationships  Your benefits/ your contributions = partner’s benefits/partner’s contributions  Comparison level= avg. expected outcome of the relationship  Comparisons for alternatives= expectation of what could be received in a different relationship  Investment= what must be put into a relationship that can not be recovered if the relationship ends  Marriage o What is marriage?  No definition that is broad enough to apply easily to all societies and situations  Establishes legal parentage of children  Gives spouses rights  Genitor: the biological father of a child  Pater: the socially recognized father of a child  Exogamy: the practice of seeking a spouse outside one’s own group  Incest: having sexual relations with a close relative  The incest taboo is a cultural universal  What constitutes incest varies widely from culture to culture  Parallel cousins: children of two brothers or
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