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ANT 2301 (23)


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ANT 2301
Geoffrey Thomas

ANT NOTES 11-11  Gender o Sex: refers to biological distinction between female and male (chromosomes) o Genders: the social and psychological characteristic associated w/ being female or male o Sexual identity: number of factors, including one’s biological sex, gender identity, gender role, and sexual orientation o Sexual development  Differentiation involves translation of chromosomal info, XX or XY, into structure  Hormone dependent  Seen to stimulate “sex-typical” behavior in adulthood  Sex difference in puberty also influences by hormones o Sex and the Body  Physiological sex differences:  Based on morphology and functioning  Hermaphroditism o Possess the functional sexual organs of both sexes  Sex difference in behavior o Evolutionary theory argues that the sex differences in development are relevant to most types of sex difference in adult behavior  Hormone Research o Rhesus Monkeys  Monkeys that gave birth to genetic female infants exhibited varying degrees of masculinization in morphology and behavior o Human sexual differentiation  Pregnant women given synthetic progesterone to prevent miscarriage  Had an androgenic effect o Nature or nurture??  Twin boys  One circumcised and other had an accident o Parents made decision to reassign him to female  1997 a study published by Milton Diamond from UH reassessed the case o Over time, the girl began to struggle w/ her gender identity o Other sex vs. opposite sex?  Opposite sex implies that females and male fall at opposite ends of a single continuum such that there can be no overlap in traits o Gender identity: state of viewing oneself as a girl or boy o Transsexuals have the gender identity that is different from their biological sex o Transgender individuals- gender identity doesn’t match their biological sex assignment  Gender roles o Set of expected behaviors, traits, or actions that society associates w/ being male or female o Gender role ideology: refers to socially prescribed role relationships between women and men in any given society  In US, males described as agentic- getting things done  Females- expressive or communal- keeping group together and content o Identity  Subset of traits  4 classified gender role identities  Masculine  Feminine o Displays the traits, behaviors and characteristics that society identifies as part of the appropriate gender  Androgynous  Undifferentiated  Gender role transcendence  Androgynous gender  Undifferentiated gender o Cars and genders  Anthropomorphism  Attributing human characteristics to non-human entities  Morphometric study on car design  Associated psychological characteristics  Homophobia o Fear f homosexuality or fear of being labeled as homosexual o One of the most powerful controls of gender role behavior  Sexes differ in behavior? o Maccoby & Jacklin (1974)  Identified 4 basic sex differences  Girls have a greater verbal ability than boys  Boys have greater visual-spatial ability than girls  Boys have greater mathematical ability than girls  Males are more aggressive  Other differences can include  Males tend to congregate into larger peer groups socially  Females tend to associate in pairs or small groups and may be more oriented towards adul
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