BSC-1005 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: T Wave, Antibody, Triceps Brachii Muscle

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4 Feb 2016
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Unit 1: Movement and Physiology, Dr. P. Bryant Chase
Physiology: the science of biological function
Homeostasis: maintaining a constant internal environment with
changes in activity
Pathophysiology: changes in physiology associated with diseases,
genetic mutations, infections, or environmental factors
oPathophysiology is important to:
Understand disease mechanisms
Understand our body’s response to disease
Find treatments and cures
oBiomedical research is helping us to understand normal and
pathophysiology, with bene$ts for individuals, families, and
societies
ICLICKER QUESTION: Homeostasis is- A. Maintenance of
constant internal environment
Blood: connects tissues and cells in the body
oBlood Composition-
Cells
Red Blood Cells
White Blood Cells
Platelets (cell fragments)
Plasma
Water
Electrolytes (ions) and small molecules
oIncludes gases (O2 and CO2)
Proteins
Chemical Signals (hormones)
oHematocrit: determines O2 carrying capacity of blood in
normal individuals
% Of blood volume: RBCs
oCellular Components of blood:
Red Blood Cells (RBCs): Erythrocytes
White Blood Cells (WBCs): Leukocytes
Platelets: Thrombocytes and cell fragments
oRed Blood Cells: Erythrocytes
Blood is 40-45% Red Blood Cells
Filled with hemoglobin, this is what O2 is bound to
Specialized to transport Oxygen (O2)
Bi-Concave shape
Short di8usion shape for O2
Cytoskeleton protein spectrum maintains shape:
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oLike the frame of a building
O2 transport in the blood
Dissolved in plasma and cytoplasm of blood cells
Bound to Hemoglobin (Hb)
oRBCs are $lled with Hemoglobin
Myoglobin and Hemoglobin are O2 binding proteins in
muscle and blood
Myoglobin binds 1 O2 molecule
Hemoglobin binds 4 O2 molecules
oBinding 1 O2 increases the binding of the next
Red blood cells also participate in carbon dioxide (CO2)
transport
CO2 transport in blood
oDissolved in plasma and cytoplasm of blood cells
oBound to Hb (after it has released O2)
oConverted to Carbonic Acid (H2CO3) by an enzyme
Enzyme: Carbonic Anhydrase
In RBCs
oCarbonic acid comes apart -> bicarbonate (HCO3)
+ H+ (proton)
CO2 and HCO3- can easily leave (and re-
enter) RBCs
Most carbon dioxide (CO2) is transported in
blood converted to bicarbonate (HCO3-)
ICLICKER QUESTION: Hemoglobin (Hb) is a protein in RBCs
that has four binding sights to cooperatively bind- B.
Oxygen
ICLICKER QUESTION: Sickle cell disease is due to the
mutation in ________, which leads to clumping of that
protein, which changes the shape of __________.
Hemoglobin, red blood cells
ERYTHROPOIESIS: New red blood cells come from red
marrow of bone
An individual RBC circulates in blood for only 3-4
months
New RBCs come from stem cells that divide (replicate)
and specialize (di8erentiate) into RBCs
oOccurs in red marrow of bone
oMaturation takes about one week
oNote RBC loses nucleus during maturation: more
room for HB (no nucleus means they can no longer
divide on their own)
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RBC production is primarily controlled by a hormone,
Erythropoietin (EPO)
oEPO stimulates RBC production
oEPO produced by kidneys
oExample of homeostasis: moving to live in the
mountains
oLess atmospheric O2 at elevation
oLess O2 in blood, especially during activity
oKidneys produce more EPO
oHematocrit increases
oMore O2 blood
Molecular origin of Sickle Cell Disease (
A genetic mutation in
an HB gene
)
oWhite Blood Cells: Leukocytes
New White Blood Cells (WBCs) come from red marrow of
blood
New WBCS come from stem cells that divide (replicate)
and specialize (di8erentiate) into WBCs
Fight disease
Platelets
Platelets are cell fragments produced by
megakaryocytes
New platelets come from red marrow of bone
oNew platelets come from cells called
megakaryocytes
Blood Plasma Composition:
oWater
oElectrolytes
oSmall molecules
Dissolved gasses (O2 and CO2 and N2)
Food molecules and metabolic wastes
Proteins
Chemical Signals (hormones)
Some are proteins, and others are bound to proteins
oMajor Proteins in Blood Plasma
Albumins
Lipoprotein assemblies
Apolipoproteins + lipids
High density lipoproteins (HDL) = good cholesterol
Low density lipoproteins (LDL) = bad cholesterol
Fibrinogens
Blood Clotting (with platelets)
Globulins
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