BSC-2010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Cell Membrane, Nuclear Membrane, Lipid Bilayer

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20 Oct 2016

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Chapter 6
o Simplest collection of matter that can be alive
o All are related to their descent from earlier cells
o Can differ substantially from one another but share common features
Cell fractionation takes cells apart and separates the major organelles from
one another
Centrifuges fractionate cells into their component parts
CF enables scientists to determine the functions of organelles
o Bacteria and archaea are prokaryotic cells
o No nucleus
o DNA in an unbound region called the nucleoid
o No membrane bound organelles
o Cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane
o Protists fungi animals and plants consist of eukaryotic cells
o DNA in a nucleus is bounded by the membranous nuclear envelope
o Membrane bound organelles
o Cytoplasm in the region between the plasma membrane and nucleus
o Generally larger than prokaryotic
o Has internal membranes that partition the cell into organelles
o Nucleus contains most of the DNA
o Ribosomes use the info from the DNA to make proteins
Basic features of all cells
o Plasma membrane
o Semifluid substance called cytosol
o Chromosomes (carry genes)
o Ribosomes (make proteins)
The plasma membrane is a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of
oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell
o Double layer of phospholipids
The nucleus contains most of the cell’s genes and is usually the most
conspicuous organelle
The nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus, separating it from the
The nuclear membrane is a double membrane; each membrane consists of
a lipid bilayer
Nuclear Lamina keeps the shape of the nucleus
DNA is organized into discrete units called chromosomes
The DNA and proteins of chromosomes are together called chromatin
Chromatin condenses to form discrete chromosomes as a cell prepares to
The nucleolus is located within the nucleus and is the site of ribosomal RNA
(rRNA) synthesis
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