BSC-2010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Dehydration Reaction, Amylose, Maltose

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20 Oct 2016
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Chapter 5
Large molecules make up all living things
Called macromolecules
A polymer is a long molecule consisting of similar building blocks
Smaller molecules that link are called monomers
Carbs Proteins and Nucleic acids are polymers
Enzymes are macromolecules that speed up chemical reaction such as those
that make or break down polymers
Dehydration reaction occurs when two monomers bond together through the
loss of a water molecule
Hydrolysis is reverse of dehydration reaction
Each cell has thousands of different macromolecules
Carbohydrates
o Includes sugars and polymers of sugars
o Simplest carb is monosaccharide’s
CH2O
Glucose is the most common
Classified by location of carbonyl group
o Disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two
monosacharides
Common DISAC Glucose and Glucose = Maltose and Glucose
and Fructose = sucrose
Polysaccharides, the polymers of sugars, have storage and structural roles
Starch storage polysac of plants
Simplest form of starch is amylose
o Glycogen storage polysac in animals
Mainly in liver and muscle cells
o Cellulose
Major component of the tough wall of plant cells
o Chitin another structural polysaccharide, is found in the exoskeleton
of arthropods
Lipids
o one class of large biological molecules that does not include true
polymers
o do not mix with water
Fats are constructed from two types of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty
acids
o Fatty acid consists of a carboxyl group attached to a long carbon
skeleton
Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible
and no double bonds
Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds
Steroids are lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four
fused rings
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