BSC-2010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Electron Configuration, Chemical Formula, Enantiomer

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20 Oct 2016
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Chapter 4 Carbon
Proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and other molecules that distinguish living
matter are all composed of carbon compounds
Organic chemistry is the study of compounds that contain carbon
Stanley Miller’s classic experiment demonstrated the abiotic synthesis of
organic compounds
Electron configuration is the key to an atom’s characteristics
Carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules
Carbon chains vary in length and shape
Hydrocarbons are organic molecules consisting of only carbon and
hydrogen
Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different
structures and properties
o Structural isomers have different covalent arrangements of their
atoms
o Cis-trans isomers have the same covalent bonds but differ in spatial
arrangements
o Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images
of each other
Distinctive properties of organic molecules depend on the carbon Skelton
and on the chemical groups attached to it
Functional groups are most commonly involved in chemical reactions
Hydroxyl Group
o Compound name alcohol
o (-OH)
o Ex. Ethanol
Carbonyl Group
o Compound name Ketone or aldehyde
o (>C=0(
o Ex. Acetone or Propanol
Carboxyl Group
o Carboxylic acid, or organic acid
o (-COOH)
o Acetic acid (sour taste)
Amino Group
o Compound name - Amine
o (-NH2)
o Glycine
Sulfhydryl Group
o Thiol
o (-SH)
o Cysteine
Phosphate Group
o Organic phosphate
o (-OPO3^2-)
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