BSC-2010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Anaerobic Respiration, Acetyl-Coa, Cellular Respiration

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Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat
Cellular respiration includes both aerobic and anaerobic respiration but is
often used to refer to aerobic respiration
Although carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are all consumed as fuel, it is
helpful to trace cellular respiration with the sugar glucose
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy (ATP + heat)
NADH passes the electrons to the electron transport chain
Glycolysis (breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate)
o Happens in the cytosol
o Glucose to the Pyruvate
o Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA in the Mitochondria
o Next, enters the citric acid cycle
o Glycolysis sugar splitting breaks down glucose into two molecules
of pyruvate
o Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm and has two major phases
o Energy investment phase
o Energy payoff phase
The citric acid cycle (completes the breakdown of glucose)
Oxidative phosphorylation (accounts for most of the ATP synthesis)
o Citric cycle known as Krebs Cycle
o Completes the break down of pyruvate to CO2
8 steps
o Each catalyzed by a specific enzyme
o CoA joins the cycle by combining with oxaloacetate, forming citrate
o The next seven steps decompose the citrate back to oxaloacetate,
forming citrate
Most cellular respiration requires O2 to produce ATP
Without O2, the electron transport chain will cease to operate
In alcohol fermentation, pyruvate is converted to ethanol in two steps
o The first step releases CO2
o The second step produces ethanol
In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is reduced by NADH, forming lactate
as an end product, with no release of CO2
Lactic acid fermentation by some fungi and bacteria is used to make cheese
and yogurt
Cellular respiration produces 32 ATP per glucose molecule; fermentation
produces 2 ATP per glucose molecule
Fats are digested to glycerol and fatty acids
Fatty acids are broke down by beta oxidation and yield acetyl CoA
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Document Summary

Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat. Cellular respiration includes both aerobic and anaerobic respiration but is often used to refer to aerobic respiration helpful to trace cellular respiration with the sugar glucose. Although carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are all consumed as fuel, it is. Nadh passes the electrons to the electron transport chain. Glycolysis (breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate) The citric acid cycle (completes the breakdown of glucose) Oxidative phosphorylation (accounts for most of the atp synthesis: citric cycle known as krebs cycle, completes the break down of pyruvate to co2. 8 steps: each catalyzed by a specific enzyme, coa joins the cycle by combining with oxaloacetate, forming citrate, the next seven steps decompose the citrate back to oxaloacetate, forming citrate. Most cellular respiration requires o2 to produce atp. Without o2, the electron transport chain will cease to operate.

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