BSC-2010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Exergonic Reaction, Metabolic Pathway, Chemical Energy

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20 Oct 2016
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CH 8
Metabolism is the totality of an organisms chemical reactions
A metabolic pathway begins with a specific molecule and ends with a product
Catabolic pathways release energy by breaking down complex molecules into
simpler compounds
Anabolic pathways consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler
ones
Energy is the capacity to cause change
Kinetic energy is energy associated with motion
Heat (thermal energy) is kinetic energy associated with random movement
of atoms
or molecules
Potential energy is energy that matter possesses because of its location or
structure
Chemical energy is potential energy available
for release in a chemical reaction
Thermodynamics is the study of energy transformations
First law of thermodynamics, the energy of the universe is constant
o Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created
or destroyed
Second law of thermodynamics
o Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy
(disorder) of the universe
Spontaneous processes occur without energy input.
G = ∆H - TS
G free energy
H total energy
T temp in Kelvin
S entropy
An exergonic reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy and is
spontaneous
An endergonic reaction absorbs free energy from its surroundings and is
nonspontaneous
A cell does three main kinds of work
o Chemical
o Transport
o Mechanical
To do work, cells manage energy resources by energy coupling, the use of
an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one
The reactant that an enzyme acts on is called
the enzyme’s substrate
The enzyme binds to its substrate, forming an enzyme-substrate complex
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