BSC-2010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Signal Transduction, Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate, Exocytosis

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3 Nov 2016
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Blood Pressure
systolic - contractile function of left ventricle (amount of pressure)
too low - vascular problem
too high - arterial problem
diastolic - when heart is relaxed & filling; aortic valve is closed btw left ventricle & brachial
artery
too low - problem w/ valve;
vasodilation increases blood flow
1 molecule of hemoglobin can bind up to 4 molecules of oxygen
hemoglobin retains less O2 at lower pH (higher CO2 concentration)
Bohr shift - when tissues become acidic (lactic acid buildup), hemoglobin releases more O2
homeostatic mechanism
in human circulatory system, hemoglobin (Hb) molecules in tissue capillaries always release
all of their bound O2 - false
inhalation - active
contracting diaphragm (moves down) & rib muscles (rib cage expands)
increases capacity of cavity, decreases pressure, allows air to move in - down the pressure
gradient
exhalation - passive
diaphragm relaxes (moves up) &rib muscles relax (rib cage gets smaller)
decreases volume, increases pressure, moves air back out
tidal volume = normal breath
small fraction of total lung capacity
vital capacity - max amount of air you can exchange
some air is always retained = residual volume
total lung volume = vital capacity + residual volume
CO2 transport in the blood
enzyme - carbonic anhydrase
catalyzes reaction combining CO2 and H2O to form carbonic acid (weak acid)
some carbonic acid dissociates, releases bicarbonate, which can move out of RBC into
plasma
major transport form of carbon from CO2
pH buffer
in lungs, bicarbonate recombines w protons to form carbonic acid
reverse reactions
7% - dissolved in plasma
5% - bound to Hb
most - dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate
Chemical Signals
within cells
2nd messengers & related molecular pathways
between cells
in an organism - hormones, neurotransmitters, some 2nd messengers
between organisms
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