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Lecture 17

BSC 2085 Lecture 17: anatomy exam 4

12 Pages

Biological Science
Course Code
Yung Su

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ANATOMY EXAM 4 Lesson 17 the spinal cord and spinal nerves 1. Spinal Cord 18 inches long inch wide Ends btwn L1 and L2 vertebrae Bilateral symmetry gray matter surrounded by white matter Grooves divide spine into left right Posterior median sulcus posterior side Anterior median fissure deeper groove on anterior side Enlargements of spine caused by amt. Of gray matter in segment (more gray mat. Since more cells in these areas) involved w sensory and motor nerves of limbs cervical enlargement nerves of shoulders and upper limbs (around c6 level) lumbar enlargement nerves of pelvis lower limbs (around T11 level) distal ends Conus medullaris thin, conical cord below lumbar enlargment Filium Terminale thin thread of fibrous tissue at end of conus medullaris, attaches to coccygeal ligament, provides longitudinal support to spine Cauda equina nerve roots (ventral and dorsal) extending below conus medullaris and into sacrum 31 spinal cord segments based on vertebrae where spinal nerves originate positions of spinal segment vertebrae change with age (as vertebral column grows, dorsal ventral roots elongate) cervical nerves named for inferior vertebrae (nerve exits under vertebra it is named after) except cervical nerve 8 because it DOES NOT exist ALL other nerves named for superior vertebra Roots two branches of spinal nerves ventral root contains axons of motor neurons (somatic visceral effectors) dorsal root contains axons of sensory neurons (somatic visceral receptors) dorsal root ganglia contains cell bodies of sensory neurons cell bodies of motor neurons that extend axons through the ventral root are located in the gray matter of spine Spinal nerve each side of spine dorsal and ventral roots join to form a spinal nerve Mixed nerves carry both afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor) fibers Spinal meninges specialized membranes isolate spinal cord from surroundings continuous with cranial meninges
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