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Unit 1 Notes AMH2020.docx

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AMH 2020
Winfield Craig

Unit 1: The “Old” West and the “New” South America’s Manifest Destiny  Reconstruction- rebuilding the South in the aftermath of the Civil War.  South attempts to annex Cuba and Nicaragua but fails. Thus, they look to expand to the West.  The West is the area where the people who live there think they are Western. (ambiguous concept)  Extremes in temperatures and mountains in the West (very hot and very cold, Grand Canyon, Rocky Mountains).  Ideas of the West originate from Western movies.  William Cody (Buffalo Bill) o Born in Iowa in 1846 o Worked for the Pacific Railroad Company and as a Scout for the army o Went hunting for buffalo for Railroad Company and Army o Started the Western Genre with his Wild West Show  Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show  Origins of all Western Movies  Very successful  Demonstrated how to kill Buffalo  Chief Sitting Bull participated  Frederick Jackson Turner o Famous for “Frontier Thesis”  “The existence of free land…and the advance of American Settlement westward explain American development.”  “Now, four centuries from the discovery of America, at the end of a hundred years of life under the Constitution, the frontier has gone, and with its going has closed the first period of American history.”  Stirred a little debate that America should expand overseas.  Was not good for everyone, a perfect example would be the Yahi.  Land o Primary way people accumulated wealth o One of the only ways to become politically active o America’s greatness stemmed from all of the extra land they could settle on and is now coming to an end.  Ishi o A tribesman of the Yahi (located in Northern California)  Encountered Americans for the first time during the Gold Rush.  Spent time fishing and hunting local wildlife.  Resources were depleted.  Disrupted by the 49ers.  European settlers brought diseases and wiped out a good chunk of their population.  Greatly outnumbered by settlers.  Reduced population by rebelling.  Later fled and hid in California for over 40 years. o Last remaining Indian of the Yahi. o Attempted to steal from slaughter house and was later put into jail. o Group of anthropologists came and visited him. o Brought to UC Berkley in 1911 o Worked as a “Research Assistant” (Research Subject) at the Berkley Museum of Anthropology. o Exploited by anthropologists and died after a few years when he was discovered in 1911. o Anthropologists performed an autopsy of him and removed his brain. The West and Native America  The term “Indians” was dubbed by Christopher Columbus when he sailed to America when he was really trying to travel to the Indies.  Over 329 languages among Native Americans.  350 languages still being spoken in South America. o Originally there were as many as 1500 native languages in South America.  Native Americans spoke different languages to each other.  Material Culture o An object or artifact which has been modified by people for a specific social function.  Every tribe has their origin story on how they got to the continent.  Archeologists believe Native Americans travelled to the West across the Beringia Land Bridge. o Land Bridge was opened because of the Ice Age in America. o 10,000 years ago sea level went down. o People crossed from Siberia to Alaska.  Evidence for the Beringia Land Bridge theory. o DNA—Native Americans and Siberian people closely related. o Mammal remains found in the Bering Strait. o Oldest arrowheads found in Alaska. o 40,000 years ago people came across the Bridge. o They came for prey and food (Mammoths and Mastodons).  Paleo-Indians o Hunter-gatherers (Non-sedentary).  Nomadic  Follow prey where ever it goes o Become sedentary (complex) culture. o Began growing corn, tomatoes, squash, beans, potatoes, etc.  Mississipian Mound Builders o Sustained themselves by corn. o Began in Louisiana about 5,000 years ago. o Cahokia (present day Illinois) was capital  Trade occurred around 700 AD  Atlantic Shells, Stone from the Rockies, Copper from Lake Superior o Mound was symbolic of status  The bigger the better  People were buried and born there.  Monk’s Mound is the largest mound  Anasazi o Comes from Navajo—meaning “Ancient Enemy”. o They prefer “Ancient Pueblo Peoples”. o Master Architects.  Built great buildings o First appeared around 900 AD in American Southwest o Created complex societies in the desert. o Spiritual people  Used Kivas (circular rooms) to make prayers  Seminole Indians (Creek Indians) o Muscogee Speakers o Seminole comes from “Cimarron” meaning “runaway” or “wild one” in Spanish o The Seminoles took runaway slaves into their communities. o Called Creek because the British noticed they lived by Creeks. o One of the few tribes to accept enslaved African American people into their society. o Chief Osceola  Trail of Tears 1838 o Removal of multiple Indian tribes from their homeland. o Began on East coast and the people ended up in Oklahoma. o Only 200 Seminoles in Florida.  Plains Indians o Last Natives people to be left alone by White people. o 2/3 of all Native Americans lived in the Great Plains. o Horse was a benefit to the group of people. o Moved from farming to hunting (nomadic) once the Horse became a part of their society. o Teepee was a dwelling that can be used when they travelled. Diversity in the West  1850- U.S. population in the West was 1%  1900- increased to 30%  Population of 300,000 o Boston took 200 years to reach that population o San Francisco took 20 years to reach that population  Conquistadors and Missionaries (Spanish) o First major group of people to migrate to the West. o Came to find the Golden City, but could not find it o Most Spanish people did not stay in the area  Exception were the Missionaries  Missionaries Christianize Native people o Brought cows with them (Texas Longhorns)  High Survival rate  5 million cows inhabited the region  Vaqueros o The First Cowboys in the West o Lasso, Ranch, and Rodeo were the languages spoken.  Mexico in 1821 o Spanish declare independence o Seen as an opportunity for America to move west  Americans annex Texas in 1845  Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) o Indicates that Texas is a part of America. o Now America can move west without disputing legal matters.  How America Travels West o Overland by Wagon  Took a very long time but was cheap o Overland by Train  Very expensive  Only the wealthy could afford to travel by train o Steam Ships  Reasons for moving West o To escape persecution  Mormons faced persecution o Economic Opportunity  Gold Rush (1849)  Land Rush  Cattle Rush  Mormon Migration West o Church founded by Joseph Smith  Put in jail for trying to close down a newspaper that was anti-Mormon o Very Successful o Followers were persecuted for their beliefs  Polygamy (men married to multiple women, but not the other way around) o Brigham Young  Led followers to a new home at the Great Salt Lake in Utah  Had 27 wives  Arrived with 20,000 followers in 1847  By 1880- Salt Lake City had a population of 150,000  California Gold Rush 1849 o People believed you can pick up Gold Nuggets off of the floor  Gold Fever (people are not thinking straight) o Surprisingly cosmopolitan th  People are coming from multiple places all over the world (1/4 ) o Very risky
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