HIS-3464 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Strategic Defense Initiative, Lithosphere, Love Canal

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18 Jan 2016
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FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
People, Places, Things, Terms
Enlightenment
-dominant philosophical and cultural movement in 18th century Europe
-stressing the power of reason and experience in establishing reliable and sound knowledge, also
respecting the 17th century Isaac Newton and John Locke
-opposition to religion-challenge ideas grounded in tradition and faith, and advance knowledge
through the scientific method
René Descartes
-17th century French philosopher and mathematician; his universe was full of matter
Descartes Mechanics-How does he explain motion?-Vertices
Where does God fit in?-made everything into motion
How does descartes deal with the skeptics: Division between matter and "thinking stuff"
Broke away from the skepticism of the scholasticism
Used reason to explain the world, premised on the separation between the physical world and
human mind (joined by God)
“I think, therefore I am”
-Descartes philosophy: is that if someone wondering whether or not he or she exists is, in and of
itself, proof that something, an "I", exists to do the thinking
Mechanical Philosophy
-material atomists (Decartes, Galileo)-end of the 17th Century it was very generally agreed that the
universe was entirely made up of small solid corpuscles which moved
-Robert Boyle, term used to describe any general explanatory system of the physical world that
treated its phenomena as due to nothing but pieces of inert matter interacting with one another by
virtue of their shapes, sizes, and motions
Comte de Buffon
-most influential Enlightenment naturalist-wanted to explain the world in a materialistic way
-formed important techniques for the geologists of the 18th century
Physical truth
Empirical certitude from inquiry into "concrete" relations, in contrast to abstractions of mathematical
certainty in "abstract" sciences
Theory of historical of species change-helped pave the way for Darwin
Isaac Newton
-British mathematician and natural philosopher; author of the Principia and Optics.
Reflecting Telescope
Mirrors replaced lenses
Magnified objects 40x, focused images
Won newton membership in the goal society
-Theory of light and Color
-Laws of motion
Laws of Motion
Law of inertia: Every object persists in its state of rest.
Law of accel
Law of Action and reaction
Universal Gravitation
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All matter attracted to other matter
Implications of gravity
What does it explain?
Terrestrial and celestial motion
~How does it diverge from the past?
Motion doesn't require physical contact
Mathematically discredits Aristotelian physics
~What role does god play?-Initially, use god to explain gravitational behavior
-Newtonian throw used to win converts
1. An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by an external unbalanced force.
2. A falling object accelerates due to the force of gravity pulling on them.
Theory of Color and Light
Rather than colors consisting of a mixture of light and darkness prisms, it was colored light and
darkness or prisms
~White light comprised in colors
Love Canal
-Was to be developed into dream community but project never finished and was made a chemical
dumpsite…after some time the land was filled (where canal was being put in)
-school and homes built on the land and eventually carcinogens and waste seeped up through the
soil of the community
-huge environmental disaster
Aristotle
-Greek philosopher who was very influential-Aristotle’s Philosophy grew to be foundation of science
until 15th century
-Romans studied the philosophy and only used what was logical from the Greeks-the circle of Roman
and Greek scholars could not go beyond Aristotle
*Replaced Aristotle’s final cause with natural law-legitimized mathematics-modern science
Plato
-Greek philosopher who taught Aristotle and the original rationalist philosopher, he taught
mathematics as being important in natural philosophy
-the universe as a living being with a female soul
-taught the world that the appearances hides an underlying reality structure along mathematical lines
Hippocrates/Hippocratics
-Ancient Greek physician-established medicine as a learned profession in Greece; considered the
father of medicine (western medicine)
-believed all diseases had a natural cause (modern notion)
Pliny
-wrote Natural History, which included numerous facts from hundreds or authors and included
cosmology, astronomy, geography, anthropology, zoology, mineralogy and botany
-discussed matter of practical operational significance rather than Aristotle who was concerned with
providing theoretical understanding.
Augustine
-he was a Latin philosopher of Roman Empire and is generally considered as one of the greatest
Christian thinkers of all time
-his writings were very influential in the development of Christianity
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Carl Linnaeus
-Cataloguing all the known world like Pliny, but never left Sweden-Very religious
-mainly categorized living things by naming them binomially-naming and classifying animals and
plants-laid down the foundations of the modern system of biological taxonomy
Binomial nomenclature
-idea of Carl Linnaeus to name species in a formal system categorized by living things with a name
composed of two parts, both of which use Latin terms (or other languages)
Charles Darwin
-after years of studying abroad England and collecting more evidence and information back home,
Charles formulated a theory of evolution called natural selection
-his theory made people really consider evolution and uniformitarianism as evident; but his particular
theory wouldn’t be known as true until study of genetics in the 20th century could credit his work in 19th
Natural Selection
-variation within species and the heredity carried on-character of species over time
Thomas Malthus
-“Struggle for Existence”-reproduction exceeds food supply; therefore, struggle and this makes
human progress impossible
Eugenics
-biosocial progression; idea of improving a society genetically or genetic composition of a population
in general
Military Industrial Complex
-entire network of contracts and flows of money and resources among individuals as well as
corporations and institutions of the defense contractors, The Pentagon, the Congress and executive
branch
-the link between this and science is seen by many as evidence that science itself is a harmful
influence on our society
Johannes Kepler
-German mathematician and astronomer; key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best
known for his laws of planetary motion-studied the cosmos
Social Darwinism
-term in the late 19th century to describe the idea that humans, like animals and plants, compete in a
struggle for existence (society) in which natural selection results in "survival of the fittest"-Darwin’s
theories appliedtheory of natural selection applied to social, political, and economic issues
Preformation (genetics)
-idea of how humans developed in the womb; women’s eggs contained tiny versions of
humans/babies
-structure of organisms existed in miniature form, needing to be filled in with extra matter-the embryos
of successive generations of species were stored up in one within in another
Recapitulation (genetics)
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