INR 3003 Lecture Notes - Lecture 42: Tibetan Independence Movement, International Criminal Court, Human Rights Watch

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International Human Rights
1. Human Rights development
a. Enlightenment/liberalism
b. Declaration of the rights of man and the citizen 1789
c. Nationalism
i. Minority issues
ii. The holocaust
d. UNs universal declaration of human rights 1948
i. UN human rights commission/council
ii. International criminal court 1999
e. Problems
i. Definition of human rights
ii. State relations
iii. State sovereignty
f. Rwanda
i. Hutus/Tutsis, UNAMIR, RPF
ii. Where was the help?
g. Responsibility to protect
h. Human trafficking and slavery
Human rights development
Enlightenment/liberalism
Popular in the west, did not transfer to colonized nations
As people we should have human rights
French revolution championed this idea
o First time really thinking that people deserve rights because they are
people
Declaration of the rights of man and the citizen 1789
Laid out the rights of the individual
Becomes foundation for future human rights laws
o Recognized inviolable rights
o Universal rights
Were not applied universally
Widespread freedoms clause under universal rights that
were not followed in industrialization
Freedom, liberty, equality under law, private property,
security, resist oppression, voting rights, religious freedom,
freedom of though/expression/publication
Look at the humane treatment for allincluding prisoners, use
of torture for information
Nationalism
Nationalism is an incredibly powerful force in unifying and dividing groups
o Can result in discrimination of movement of self-determination
Minority issues
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o Nationalism franchising self determination
o WWI
League of nations tries to create new states to help
Minority clauses in constitutions
Holocaust
o Minority problems more prevalent then ever, LoN was not fixing the
exclusiveness
People who were not Wanted were at risk for genocide
o Post WWII international community acutely aware of minority
problems creation of UN
LoN UN
Adopt new policies
United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948
UN passes universal declaration for human rights
o Takes/updates 1789 rights of man
All rights incorporated, inalienable rights of humans
Adopted in 1948, aimed at protecting the rights of individuals in the political,
economic, religious, social, culture, civic/collective realms
o Very broad
o Acknowledging we all possess all of the same rights but how is this
applied
Respecting human dignity connected to the ideal of achieving global peace
o When we value human life, we decrease the chance of ware and this
increases global peace
o Respecting human rights would make us less war driven
UN Human Rights Commission/Council
o Drafts, passes, implements
o Legally binding? No
When something is adopted by the UN, states still have to ratify
This is where the declaration of Human rights dies
o US did not ratifywithout ratification it cannot
be implemented or become international law
o Countries will make their own Human Rights laws or regional laws
NGOs dedicated to increasing awareness for human rights
Amnesty international, holarus, human rights watch
NGOs monitor for Human Rights to pressure states to behave
and hold them accountable
Roe of reputation cost when a country commits human
rights violations
Direct pressure on govts to change
Rights of refugees, women, children
International criminal court 1999
o Becomes official in 2002
o Provides venue to try individuals (often political leaders) that would
not be tried in their own country
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